131 research outputs found

    Viewing scenes of the history of chemistry through the opera glass

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    Artistic creation has always reflected the spirit of the moment and opera has not been an exception. There are several examples of operas which appeared at key moments of the development of science, portraying them. Additionally there are also operas that emerged after scientific events or the lifetime of the scientists they were inspired on. In what concerns chemistry, the first category could be exemplified by the apothecary operas (already discussed by the author in a previous paper of this journal) while the others could be illustrated by recent operas such as Dr. Atomic or Madame Curie. Continuing our endeavor of establishing relations between opera and chemistry, and considering that history of science plays an important role in the process of teaching and learning sciences, some milestones of the history of chemistry are here revisited through the opera glass. The operas analyzed have been grouped in the following categories: Operas of Fire and Metallurgy, Operas of the Philosophers of Antiquity, Operas of Alchemy, Operas of the Age of Enlightenment, Operas of the Revolutions and Operas of Entropy.Thanks are due to the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT‚ÄďPortugal) and FEDER (European Fund for Regional Development)-COMPETE/QREN/EU for financial support through the research unity PEst-C/QUI/UI686/2013.

    Factors associated with disease evolution in Greek patients with inflammatory bowel disease

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    BACKGROUND: The majority of Crohn's disease patients with B1 phenotype at diagnosis (i.e. non-stricturing non-penetrating disease) will develop over time a stricturing or a penetrating pattern. Conflicting data exist on the rate of proximal disease extension in ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis or left-sided colitis at diagnosis. We aimed to study disease evolution in Crohn's disease B1 patients and ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis at diagnosis. METHODS: 116 Crohn's disease and 256 ulcerative colitis patients were followed-up for at least 5 years after diagnosis. Crohn's disease patients were classified according to the Vienna criteria. Data were analysed actuarially. RESULTS: B1 phenotype accounted for 68.9% of Crohn's disease patients at diagnosis. The cumulative probability of change in disease behaviour in B1 patients was 43.6% at 10 years after diagnosis. Active smoking (Hazard Ratio: 3.01) and non-colonic disease (non-L2) (Hazard Ratio: 3.01) were associated with behavioural change in B1 patients. Proctitis and left-sided colitis accounted for 24.2%, and 48.4% of ulcerative colitis patients at diagnosis. The 10 year cumulative probability of proximal disease extension in patients with proctitis and left-sided colitis was 36.8%, and 17.1%, respectively (p: 0.003). Among proctitis patients, proximal extension was more common in non-smokers (Hazard Ratio: 4.39). CONCLUSION: Classification of Crohn's disease patients in B1 phenotype should be considered as temporary. Smoking and non-colonic disease are risk factors for behavioural change in B1 Crohn's disease patients. Proximal extension is more common in ulcerative colitis patients with proctitis than in those with left-sided colitis. Among proctitis patients, proximal extension is more common in non-smokers

    An Observational Overview of Solar Flares

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    We present an overview of solar flares and associated phenomena, drawing upon a wide range of observational data primarily from the RHESSI era. Following an introductory discussion and overview of the status of observational capabilities, the article is split into topical sections which deal with different areas of flare phenomena (footpoints and ribbons, coronal sources, relationship to coronal mass ejections) and their interconnections. We also discuss flare soft X-ray spectroscopy and the energetics of the process. The emphasis is to describe the observations from multiple points of view, while bearing in mind the models that link them to each other and to theory. The present theoretical and observational understanding of solar flares is far from complete, so we conclude with a brief discussion of models, and a list of missing but important observations.Comment: This is an article for a monograph on the physics of solar flares, inspired by RHESSI observations. The individual articles are to appear in Space Science Reviews (2011

    The qualitative transparency deliberations: insights and implications

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    In recent years, a variety of efforts have been made in political science to enable, encourage, or require scholars to be more open and explicit about the bases of their empirical claims and, in turn, make those claims more readily evaluable by others. While qualitative scholars have long taken an interest in making their research open, reflexive, and systematic, the recent push for overarching transparency norms and requirements has provoked serious concern within qualitative research communities and raised fundamental questions about the meaning, value, costs, and intellectual relevance of transparency for qualitative inquiry. In this Perspectives Reflection, we crystallize the central findings of a three-year deliberative process‚ÄĒthe Qualitative Transparency Deliberations (QTD)‚ÄĒinvolving hundreds of political scientists in a broad discussion of these issues. Following an overview of the process and the key insights that emerged, we present summaries of the QTD Working Groups‚Äô final reports. Drawing on a series of public, online conversations that unfolded at www.qualtd.net, the reports unpack transparency‚Äôs promise, practicalities, risks, and limitations in relation to different qualitative methodologies, forms of evidence, and research contexts. Taken as a whole, these reports‚ÄĒthe full versions of which can be found in the Supplementary Materials‚ÄĒoffer practical guidance to scholars designing and implementing qualitative research, and to editors, reviewers, and funders seeking to develop criteria of evaluation that are appropriate‚ÄĒas understood by relevant research communities‚ÄĒto the forms of inquiry being assessed. We dedicate this Reflection to the memory of our coauthor and QTD working group leader Kendra Koivu

    Electric and Magnetic Fields Inside Neurons and Their Impact Upon the Cytoskeletal Microtubules

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    SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with immune-suppressive disease

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    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immune responses and infection outcomes were evaluated in 2,686 patients with varying immune-suppressive disease states after administration of two Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Overall, 255 of 2,204 (12%) patients failed to develop anti-spike antibodies, with an additional 600 of 2,204 (27%) patients generating low levels (<380‚ÄČAU‚ÄČml‚ąí1). Vaccine failure rates were highest in ANCA-associated vasculitis on rituximab (21/29, 72%), hemodialysis on immunosuppressive therapy (6/30, 20%) and solid organ transplant recipients (20/81, 25% and 141/458, 31%). SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses were detected in 513 of 580 (88%) patients, with lower T cell magnitude or proportion in hemodialysis, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and liver transplant recipients (versus healthy controls). Humoral responses against Omicron (BA.1) were reduced, although cross-reactive T cell responses were sustained in all participants for whom these data were available. BNT162b2 was associated with higher antibody but lower cellular responses compared to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. We report 474 SARS-CoV-2 infection episodes, including 48 individuals with hospitalization or death from COVID-19. Decreased magnitude of both the serological and the T cell response was associated with severe COVID-19. Overall, we identified clinical phenotypes that may benefit from targeted COVID-19 therapeutic strategies
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