78 research outputs found

    The apical protein Apnoia interacts with Crumbs to regulate tracheal growth and inflation

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    Most organs of multicellular organisms are built from epithelial tubes. To exert their functions, tubes rely on apico-basal polarity, on junctions, which form a barrier to separate the inside from the outside, and on a proper lumen, required for gas or liquid transport. Here we identify apnoia (apn), a novel Drosophila gene required for tracheal tube elongation and lumen stability at larval stages. Larvae lacking Apn show abnormal tracheal inflation and twisted airway tubes, but no obvious defects in early steps of tracheal maturation. apn encodes a transmembrane protein, primarily expressed in the tracheae, which exerts its function by controlling the localization of Crumbs (Crb), an evolutionarily conserved apical determinant. Apn physically interacts with Crb to control its localization and maintenance at the apical membrane of developing airways. In apn mutant tracheal cells, Crb fails to localize apically and is trapped in retromer-positive vesicles. Consistent with the role of Crb in apical membrane growth, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Crb results in decreased apical surface growth of tracheal cells and impaired axial elongation of the dorsal trunk. We conclude that Apn is a novel regulator of tracheal tube expansion in larval tracheae, the function of which is mediated by Crb

    Yorkie controls tube length and apical barrier integrity during airway development

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    Epithelial organ size and shape depend on cell shape changes, cell-matrix communication, and apical membrane growth. The Drosophila melanogaster embryonic tracheal network is an excellent model to study these processes. Here, we show that the transcriptional coactivator of the Hippo pathway, Yorkie (YAP/TAZ in vertebrates), plays distinct roles in the developing Drosophila airways. Yorkie exerts a cytoplasmic function by binding Drosophila Twinstar, the orthologue of the vertebrate actin-severing protein Cofilin, to regulate F-actin levels and apical cell membrane size, which are required for proper tracheal tube elongation. Second, Yorkie controls water tightness of tracheal tubes by transcriptional regulation of the δ-aminolevulinate synthase gene (Alas). We conclude that Yorkie has a dual role in tracheal development to ensure proper tracheal growth and functionality

    YAP1 Recruits c-Abl to Protect Angiomotin-Like 1 from Nedd4-Mediated Degradation

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    Tissue development and organ growth require constant remodeling of cell-cell contacts formed between epithelial cells. The Hippo signaling cascade curtails organ growth by excluding the transcriptional co-activator Yes Associated Protein 1 (YAP1) from the nucleus. Angiomotin family members recruit YAP1 to tight junctions [1], but whether YAP1 plays a specific role outside of the nucleus is currently unknown.The present study demonstrates that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4.2 targets Angiomotin-like 1 (AMOTL1), a family member that promotes the formation of epithelial tight junctions, for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Unexpectedly, YAP1 antagonizes the function of Nedd4.2, and protects AMOTL1 against Nedd4.2-mediated degradation. YAP1 recruits c-Abl, a tyrosine kinase that binds and phosphorylates Nedd4.2 on tyrosine residues, thereby modifying its ubiquitin-ligase activity.Our results uncover a novel function for cytoplasmic YAP1. YAP1 recruits c-Abl to protect AMOTL1 against Nedd4.2-mediated degradation. Thus, YAP1, excluded from the nucleus, contributes to the maintenance of tight junctions

    TEAD and YAP regulate the enhancer network of human embryonic pancreatic progenitors.

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    The genomic regulatory programmes that underlie human organogenesis are poorly understood. Pancreas development, in particular, has pivotal implications for pancreatic regeneration, cancer and diabetes. We have now characterized the regulatory landscape of embryonic multipotent progenitor cells that give rise to all pancreatic epithelial lineages. Using human embryonic pancreas and embryonic-stem-cell-derived progenitors we identify stage-specific transcripts and associated enhancers, many of which are co-occupied by transcription factors that are essential for pancreas development. We further show that TEAD1, a Hippo signalling effector, is an integral component of the transcription factor combinatorial code of pancreatic progenitor enhancers. TEAD and its coactivator YAP activate key pancreatic signalling mediators and transcription factors, and regulate the expansion of pancreatic progenitors. This work therefore uncovers a central role for TEAD and YAP as signal-responsive regulators of multipotent pancreatic progenitors, and provides a resource for the study of embryonic development of the human pancreas

    FAT1 mutations cause a glomerulotubular nephropathy

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    Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) causes 15% of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we show that recessive mutations in FAT1 cause a distinct renal disease entity in four families with a combination of SRNS, tubular ectasia, haematuria and facultative neurological involvement. Loss of FAT1 results in decreased cell adhesion and migration in fibroblasts and podocytes and the decreased migration is partially reversed by a RAC1/CDC42 activator. Podocyte-specific deletion of Fat1 in mice induces abnormal glomerular filtration barrier development, leading to podocyte foot process effacement. Knockdown of Fat1 in renal tubular cells reduces migration, decreases active RAC1 and CDC42, and induces defects in lumen formation. Knockdown of fat1 in zebrafish causes pronephric cysts, which is partially rescued by RAC1/CDC42 activators, confirming a role of the two small GTPases in the pathogenesis. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SRNS and tubulopathy, linking FAT1 and RAC1/CDC42 to podocyte and tubular cell function

    Mutations in DONSON disrupt replication fork stability and cause microcephalic dwarfism

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    To ensure efficient genome duplication, cells have evolved numerous factors that promote unperturbed DNA replication and protect, repair and restart damaged forks. Here we identify downstream neighbor of SON (DONSON) as a novel fork protection factor and report biallelic DONSON mutations in 29 individuals with microcephalic dwarfism. We demonstrate that DONSON is a replisome component that stabilizes forks during genome replication. Loss of DONSON leads to severe replication-associated DNA damage arising from nucleolytic cleavage of stalled replication forks. Furthermore, ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR)-dependent signaling in response to replication stress is impaired in DONSON-deficient cells, resulting in decreased checkpoint activity and the potentiation of chromosomal instability. Hypomorphic mutations in DONSON substantially reduce DONSON protein levels and impair fork stability in cells from patients, consistent with defective DNA replication underlying the disease phenotype. In summary, we have identified mutations in DONSON as a common cause of microcephalic dwarfism and established DONSON as a critical replication fork protein required for mammalian DNA replication and genome stability

    Depletion of endogenous YAP1 or Nedd4.2 affects endogenous AMOTL1 levels.

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    <p>HEK293T cells were transiently transfected with either YAP1 or Nedd4.2 shRNA. Even a small reduction of YAP1 results in almost complete absence of AMOTL1. However depletion of Nedd4.2 maintains AMOTL1 levels. Actin was used as a loading control.</p

    The WW3 domain of Nedd4.2 interacts with AMOTL1.

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    <p><i>A</i>, The two PPxY motifs of AMOTL1 (PY1: PPEY, amino acid 310–313, and PY2: PPEY, amino acid 367–370) are important for the interaction with Nedd4.2. Precipitation of wild type F.AMOTL1 immobilized both myc.Nedd4.2 and V5.YAP1 (left panel), while precipitation of mutant F.AMOTL1PY1/2, lacking both PPxY motifs, immobilized V5.YAP1, but only small amounts of myc.Nedd4.2 (right panel). <i>B</i>, The WW1, WW2, WW3 and WW4 domains of Nedd4.2 were mutated, and co-expressed with Flag-tagged AMOTL1. Only the interaction between the myc.Nedd4.2 WW3 and AMOTL1 was decreased, indicating that this domain interacts with AMOTL1.</p

    The Molecular Network of YAP/Yorkie at the Cell Cortex and their Role in Ocular Morphogenesis

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    During development, the precise control of tissue morphogenesis requires changes in the cell number, size, shape, position, and gene expression, which are driven by both chemical and mechanical cues from the surrounding microenvironment. Such physical and architectural features inform cells about their proliferative and migratory capacity, enabling the formation and maintenance of complex tissue architecture. In polarised epithelia, the apical cell cortex, a thin actomyosin network that lies directly underneath the apical plasma membrane, functions as a platform to facilitate signal transmission between the external environment and downstream signalling pathways. One such signalling pathway culminates in the regulation of YES-associated protein (YAP) and TAZ transcriptional co-activators and their sole Drosophila homolog, Yorkie, to drive proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies have demonstrated that YAP/Yorkie exhibit a distinct function at the apical cell cortex. Here, we review recent efforts to understand the mechanisms that regulate YAP/Yki at the apical cell cortex of epithelial cells and how normal and disturbed YAP&ndash;actomyosin networks are involved in eye development and disease

    YAP1-AMOTL1 binding requires the AMOTL1 motifs LPTY and the PPEY.

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    <p>Either of Flag-tagged AMOTL1<sup>188–191A</sup> (LY: LPTY, amino acids 188–191), AMOTL1 <sup>188–191A/310–313A</sup> (LY/PY1: LPTY, amino acids 188–191 and PPEY, amino acids 310–313) or AMOTL1 <sup>188–191A/367–370A</sup> (LY/PY2: LPTY, amino acids 188–191 and PPEY, amino acids 367–370) mutants were used to precipitate YAP1. Immunoblotting was carried out using the indicated antibodies.</p
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