9,262 research outputs found

    Disruption of gut barrier integrity and host–microbiome interactions underlie MASLD severity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

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    ABSTRACTAberration of the “gut-liver axis” contributes to the development and progression of metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD). Here, we use multi-omics to analyze the gut microbiota composition and metabolic profile of patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM patients were screened for liver disease by blood tests, ultrasound, and liver stiffness measurements. Stool microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing; metabolomic profiling by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy and Ultra-High Performance-Mass Spectrometry. Microbiome and metabolic signatures were analyzed in the whole cohort and in matched subsets to identify signatures specific for steatosis (MASLD±) or fibrosis (Fibrosis±). Gut permeability was assessed in-vitro using monolayers of MDCK cells and trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER). Cytokine profile was assessed in serum and stools.Overall, 285 patients were enrolled: 255 serum, 252 urine and 97 stool samples were analyzed. Anaeroplasma and Escherichia/Shigella ASVs were higher, while Butyricicoccus ASVs were lower in those with normal liver. In MASLD±, Butyricicoccus ASV was significantly higher in those with steatosis. In the Fibrosis±, Butyricicoccus ASV was significantly lower in those with fibrosis. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid-3-sulfate (G-UDCA-3S) appeared to be higher in MASLD with fibrosis. Fecal water from patients with MASLD and fibrosis caused the greatest drop in the TEER vs those with normal liver; this was reversed with protease inhibitors. Finally, fecal IL-13 was lower in MASLD with fibrosis. We identified microbiome signatures which were specific for steatosis and fibrosis and independent of other metabolic risk factors. Moreover, we conclude that protease-related gut permeability plays a role in those MASLD patients with fibrosis, and that disease progression is linked to a gut-liver axis which is at least partially independent of T2DM

    Variation in prognosis and treatment outcome in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a Biology of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Consortium proposal for a practical definition and stratified medicine classifications

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    Peripheral temperature gradient screening of high-Z impurities in optimised 'hybrid' scenario H-mode plasmas in JET-ILW