13 research outputs found

    Development and Validation of a Nomogram for Predicting Survival in Male Patients With Breast Cancer

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    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, and most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. We aimed to develop a reliable nomogram to predict breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) for MBC patients, thus helping clinical diagnosis and treatment. Based on data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, 2,451 patients diagnosed with MBC from 2010 to 2015 were selected for this study. They were randomly assigned to either a training cohort (n = 1715) or a validation cohort (n = 736). The Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the independent prognostic factors, which were then utilized to build a nomogram for predicting 3- and 5-year BCSS. The discrimination and calibration of the new model was evaluated using the Concordance index (C-index) and calibration curves, while its accuracy and benefits were assessed by comparing it to the traditional AJCC staging system using the net reclassification improvement (NRI), the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI), and the decision curve analysis (DCA). Multivariate models revealed that age, AJCC stage, ER status, PR status, and surgery all showed a significant association with BCSS. A nomogram based on these variables was constructed to predict survival in MBC patients. Compared to the AJCC stage, the C-index (training group: 0.840 vs. 0.775, validation group: 0.818 vs. 0.768), the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set (3-year AUC: 0.852 vs. 0.778, 5-year AUC: 0.841 vs. 0.774) and the validation set (3-year AUC: 0.778 vs. 0.752, 5-year AUC: 0.852 vs. 0.794), and the calibration plots of this model all exhibited better performance. Additionally, the NRI and IDI confirmed that the nomogram was a great prognosis tool. Finally, the 3- and 5-year DCA curves yielded larger net benefits than the traditional AJCC stage. In conclusion, we have successfully established an effective nomogram to predict BCSS in MBC patients, which can assist clinicians in determining the appropriate therapy strategies for individual male patients

    MARKETING STRATEGY OF CHINESES DOMESTIC LUXURY BRAND : ——Case Company: Kweichow Moutai

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    The global luxury market totaled 217billionwithabreakthroughin2013.Meanwhile,Chineseluxuryconsumptionhasreached217 billion with a breakthrough in 2013. Meanwhile, Chinese luxury consumption has reached 102 billion in total, which means that the Chinese bought 47% of the world's luxury goods and China became the world's largest luxury consumption country. With the rapid development of China’s economy and the increase of the national consumption level, international luxury brands are an expanding business in China. So far, almost all of the world's top luxury brands have flagship stores in China. However, Chinese domestic luxury brands are rare, and are mostly limited to furniture, clothing, tea and other traditional Chinese industries. Since domestic luxury enterprises lack independent innovation capacity, the historical accumulation and the cultural connotation, Chinese domestic luxury brands are facing some development problems. This thesis analyzes the features of luxury products and the background of China's luxury market based on the idea of developing Chinese own domestic luxury brands. The main methodology of this thesis is the quantitative method, carried out by analyzing 210 questionnaire responses. Meanwhile, two marketing analysis measures are applied, which include SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) and the 4Ps-marketing-theory (Products, Place, Price, and Promotion). Through analyzing the case company Kweichow Moutai, some related marketing mix strategies are given. In conclusion, for Chinese domestic luxury brands, the most significant steps are to raise brand awareness and expand luxury market into Chinese second and third-tier cities. At the same time, personalized services should not be ignored.Maailmanlaajuiset luksusmarkkinat tekivät tulosta 217 miljardin dollarin läpimurrolla vuonna 2013. Samaan aikaan Kiinan luksustuotteiden kulutus on saavuttanut 102 miljardia dollaria yhteensä, tarkoittaen, että kiinalaiset ostivat 47 prosenttia maailman ylellisyystuotteista. Näin ollen Kiinasta tuli maailman suurin luksustuotteiden kuluttajamaa. Kiinan nopean taloudellinen kehitys ja kansallinen kulutustason nousu on saanut kansainväliset luksusmerkit laajentamaan liiketoimintaa Kiinassa. Toistaiseksi lähes kaikilla maailman luksustuotemerkeillä on lippulaivamyymälöitä Kiinassa. Kuitenkin Kiinan kansalliset luksustuotemerkit ovat harvinaisia ja rajoittuvat pääasiassa huonekaluihin, vaatteisiin, teehen ja muihin perinteisiin kiinalaisiin teollisuudenaloihin. Koska kotimaiset luksusyritykset ovat vailla itsenäistä innovaatiokapasiteettiä, historiallinen kertymistä ja kulttuurista sivumerkityksestä, aiheuttaa Kiinan luksusmerkkien kohtaavan kehitykseen liittyviä ongelmia. Tämä työ analysoi luksustuotteiden ominaisuuksia ja Kiinan luksustuotemarkkinoita, perustuen ajatukseen Kiinan kotimaisten luksustuotteiden kehittämisestä. Tärkeimmät tutkimusmenetelmät tässä työssä ovat kvantitatiivinen menetelmä, analysoimalla 210 kyselylomakkeen vastauksia. Samaan aikaan sovelletaan kahta markkinointianalyysia, jotka sisältävät SWOT-analyysin (vahvuudet, heikkoudet, mahdollisuudet ja uhat) ja 4PS-markkinointiteorian (tuotteet, paikka, hinta ja mainostaminen). Analysoimalla kohdeyritystä Kweichow Moutainia, esitetään joitain liittyviä yhdistettyjä markkinointistrategioita. Johtopäätös on, että Kiinan luksustuotemerkin merkittävimmät vaiheet on lisätä bränditunnettuutta ja laajentaa luksusmarkkinoita Kiinan toisen ja kolmannen tason kaupungeissa. Toisaalta, yksilöllisiä palveluja ei voida jättää huomiotta

    Comparative analysis of codon usage patterns and phylogenetic implications of five mitochondrial genomes of the genus Japanagallia Ishihara, 1955 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Megophthalminae)

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    Japanagallia is a genus of Cicadomorpha in the family of leafhoppers that are plant piercing-sucking insects, and it is difficult to distinguish by morphological characteristics. So far, only one complete mitochondrial genome data has been reported for the genus Japanagallia. Therefore, in order to better understand this group, we assembled and annotated the complete mitochondrial genomes of five Japanagallia species, and analyzed their codon usage patterns. Nucleotide composition analysis showed that AT content was higher than GC content, and the protein-coding sequences preferred to end with A/T at the third codon position. Relative synonymous codon usage analysis revealed most over-represented codon ends with A or T. Parity plot analysis revealed the codon usage bias of mitochondrial genes was influenced by both natural selection and mutation pressure. In the neutrality plot, the slopes of regression lines were < 0.5, suggesting that natural selection was playing a major role while mutation pressure was of minor importance. The effective number of codons showed that the codon usage bias between genes and genomes was low. Correspondence analysis revealed that the codon usage pattern differed among 13 protein-coding genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on three datasets using two methods (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference), restored the Megophthalminae monophyly with high support values (bootstrap support values (BS) = 100, Bayesian posterior probability (PP) = 1). In the obtained topology, the seven Japanagallia species were clustered into a monophyletic group and formed a sister group with Durgade. In conclusion, our study can provide a reference for the future research on organism evolution, identification and phylogeny relationships of Japanagallia species

    High Uniformity and Enhancement Au@AgNS 3D Substrates for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

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    Breast cancer appears to be one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality for women worldwide. The accurate and rapid diagnosis of breast cancer is hence critical for the treatment and prognosis of patients. With the vibrational fingerprint information and high detection sensitivity, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been extensively applied in biomedicine. Here, an optimized bimetallic nanosphere (Au@Ag NS) 3D substrate was fabricated for the aim of the diagnosis of breast cancer based on the SERS analysis of the extracellular metabolites. The unique stacking mode of 3D Au@Ag NSs provided multiple plasmonic hot spots according to the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic field distribution. The low relative standard deviation (RSD = 2.7%) and high enhancement factor (EF = 1.42 Ă— 105) proved the uniformity and high sensitivity. More importantly, the normal breast cells and breast cancer cells could be readily distinguished from the corresponding SERS spectra based on the extracellular metabolites. Furthermore, the clear clusters of SERS spectra from MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 extracellular metabolites in the orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis plot indicate the distinct metabolic fingerprint between breast cancer cells, which imply their potential clinical application in the diagnosis of breast cancer

    Poor prognosis of nucleophosmin overexpression in solid tumors: a meta-analysis

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    Abstract Background Nucleophosmin is a non-ribosomal nucleolar phosphoprotein that is found primarily in the nucleolus region of cell nucleus, plays multiple important roles in tumor processes. Accumulated previous studies have reported a potential value of NPM acted as a biomarker for prognosis in various solid tumors, but the results were more inconsistency. We performed this meta-analysis to precisely evaluate the prognostic significance of NPM in solid tumors. Methods Clinical data were collected from a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases (up to October, 2017). A total of 11 studied with 997 patients were used to assess the association of NPM expression and patients’ overall survival (OS). The hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to estimate the effect. Results The pooled results indicated that higher expression of NPM was observably correlated with poor OS in solid tumor (HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.44–2.38, P < 0.001). Furthermore, high expression of NPM was associated with some phenotypes of tumor aggressiveness, such as tumor stage (4 studies, III/IV vs. I/II, OR = 5.21, 95% CI: 2.72–9.56, P < 0.001), differentiation grade (poor vs. well/moderate, OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.01–3.27, P = 0.046). Conclusion This meta-analysis indicated that NPM may act as a valuable prognosis biomarker and a potential therapeutic target in human solid tumors
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