4,186 research outputs found

    Stress-Energy Tensor and Ultraviolet Behaviour in Massive Integrable Quantum Field Theories

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    The short distance behaviour of massive integrable quantum field theories is analyzed in terms of the form factor approach. We show that the on-shell dynamics is compatible with different definitions of the stress-energy tensor Tμν(x)T_{\mu\nu}(x) of the theory. In terms of form factors, this is equivalent to having a possible non-zero matrix element F1F_1 of the trace of TμνT_{\mu\nu} on one-particle state. Each choice of F1F_1 induces a different scaling behaviour of the massive theory in the ultraviolet limit.Comment: 32 pages LATEX file (Three figures not included in the text) ISAS/EP/93/6

    "Nonlinear" covariance matrix and portfolio theory for non-Gaussian multivariate distributions

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    This paper offers a precise analytical characterization of the distribution of returns for a portfolio constituted of assets whose returns are described by an arbitrary joint multivariate distribution. In this goal, we introduce a non-linear transformation that maps the returns onto gaussian variables whose covariance matrix provides a new measure of dependence between the non-normal returns, generalizing the covariance matrix into a non-linear fractional covariance matrix. This nonlinear covariance matrix is chiseled to the specific fat tail structure of the underlying marginal distributions, thus ensuring stability and good-conditionning. The portfolio distribution is obtained as the solution of a mapping to a so-called phi-q field theory in particle physics, of which we offer an extensive treatment using Feynman diagrammatic techniques and large deviation theory, that we illustrate in details for multivariate Weibull distributions. The main result of our theory is that minimizing the portfolio variance (i.e. the relatively ``small'' risks) may often increase the large risks, as measured by higher normalized cumulants. Extensive empirical tests are presented on the foreign exchange market that validate satisfactorily the theory. For ``fat tail'' distributions, we show that an adequete prediction of the risks of a portfolio relies much more on the correct description of the tail structure rather than on their correlations.Comment: Latex, 76 page

    Determination of steviol glycosides in commercial extracts of Stevia rebaudiana and sweeteners by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography Orbitrap mass spectrometry

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    Stevia rebaudiana extracts are used as sweeteners in several countries worldwide. Several extracts of diverse composition are available on the market, and their taste depends on the contents of the various steviol glycosides. This study presents an accurate method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of steviol glycosides in 40 Stevia extracts, 7 sweeteners and 3 Stevia-sweetened beverages by a UHPLC coupled to an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The sub-2 \u3bcm amide column provided the separation of all the target analytes in a run time of 30 min with high resolution. The effect of different eluent compositions on the ionisation efficiency of the steviol glycosides was studied. The optimal ionisation conditions were achieved in negative mode using 0.05% formic acid. Under this condition, adducts were not found, [M-H]- were the main ions and the spontaneous loss of a glucose residue at C19 was reduced. The %RSD for intra- and inter-day precision for all eleven analytes varied from 2.1\u20134.2% and 3.0\u20135.1%, respectively. The recoveries from spiked Stevia extract samples were greater than 95% for all analytes. Rebaudioside A was the most abundant, ranging from 23\u2013102%. Nine Stevia extracts and one drink were not compliant with the European Regulation. Isosteviol was under the LOD in all samples and steviol was found in four samples in quantities in the range 0.01\u20130.03%

    Peripheral Facial Nerve Palsy in Severe Systemic Hypertension: A Systematic Review

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    BACKGROUND Signs of nervous system dysfunction such as headache or convulsions often occur in severe systemic hypertension. Less recognized is the association between severe hypertension and peripheral facial nerve palsy. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the association of peripheral facial palsy with severe hypertension. METHODS Systematic review of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 1960 through December 2011 and report of two cases. RESULTS The literature review revealed 24 cases to which we add two cases with severe hypertension and peripheral facial palsy. Twenty-three patients were children. Palsy was unilateral in 25 cases, bilateral in one case, and recurred in nine. The time between the first facial symptoms and diagnosis of hypertension was a median of 45 days (range, 0 days-2 years). In five case series addressing the complications of severe hypertension in children, 41 further cases of peripheral facial palsy were listed out of 860 patients (4.8%). CONCLUSIONS The association between severe hypertension and peripheral facial palsy is mainly described in children. Arterial hypertension is diagnosed with a substantial delay. Outcome is favorable with adequate antihypertensive treatment. The pathophysiology is still debate

    Oxidative potential associated with urban aerosol deposited into the respiratory system and relevant elemental and ionic fraction contributions

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    Size-segregated aerosol measurements were carried out at an urban and at an industrial site. Soluble and insoluble fractions of elements and inorganic ions were determined. Oxidative potential (OP) was assessed on the soluble fraction of Particulate Matter (PM) by ascorbic acid (AA), dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) and dithiothreitol (DTT) assays. Size resolved elemental, ion and OP doses in the head (H), tracheobronchial (TB) and alveolar (Al) regions were estimated using the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model. The total aerosol respiratory doses due to brake and soil resuspension emissions were higher at the urban than at the industrial site. On the contrary, the doses of anthropic combustion tracers were generally higher at the industrial site. In general, the insoluble fraction was more abundantly distributed in the coarse than in the fine mode and vice versa for the soluble fraction. Consequently, for the latter, the percent of the total respiratory dose deposited in TB and Al regions increased. Oxidative potential assay (OPAA) doses were distributed in the coarse region; therefore, their major contribution was in the H region. The contribution in the TB and Al regions increased for OPDTT and OPDCFH