135 research outputs found

    Interleukin-2/interferon-α2a/13-retinoic acid-based chemoimmunotherapy in advanced renal cell carcinoma: results of a prospectively randomised trial of the German Cooperative Renal Carcinoma Chemoimmunotherapy Group (DGCIN)

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    We performed a prospectively randomised clinical trial to compare the efficacy of four subcutaneous interleukin-2-(sc-IL-2) and sc interferon-α2a (sc-IFN-α2a)-based outpatient regimens in 379 patients with progressive metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Patients with lung metastases, an erythrocyte sedimentation rate ⩽70 mm h−1 and neutrophil counts ⩽6000 μl−1 (group I) were randomised to arm A: sc-IL-2, sc-IFN-α2a, peroral 13-cis-retinoic acid (po-13cRA) (n=78), or arm B: arm A plus inhaled-IL-2 (n=65). All others (group II) were randomised to arm C: arm A plus intravenous 5-fluorouracil (iv-5-FU) (n=116), or arm D: arm A plus po-Capecitabine (n=120). Median overall survival (OS) was 22 months (arm A; 3-year OS: 29.7%) and 18 months (arm B; 3-year OS: 29.2%) in group I, and 18 months (arm C; 3-year OS: 25.7%) and 16 months (arm D; 3-year OS: 32.6%) in group II. There were no statistically significant differences in OS, progression-free survival, and objective response between arms A and B, and between arms C and D, respectively. Given the known therapeutic efficacy of sc-IL-2/sc-INF-α2a/po-13cRA-based outpatient chemoimmunotherapies, our results did not establish survival advantages in favour of po-Capecitabine vs iv-5-FU, and in favour of short-term inhaled-IL-2 in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma receiving systemic cytokines

    Induced pseudoscalar coupling of the proton weak interaction

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    The induced pseudoscalar coupling gpg_p is the least well known of the weak coupling constants of the proton's charged--current interaction. Its size is dictated by chiral symmetry arguments, and its measurement represents an important test of quantum chromodynamics at low energies. During the past decade a large body of new data relevant to the coupling gpg_p has been accumulated. This data includes measurements of radiative and non radiative muon capture on targets ranging from hydrogen and few--nucleon systems to complex nuclei. Herein the authors review the theoretical underpinnings of gpg_p, the experimental studies of gpg_p, and the procedures and uncertainties in extracting the coupling from data. Current puzzles are highlighted and future opportunities are discussed.Comment: 58 pages, Latex, Revtex4, prepared for Reviews of Modern Physic

    Optimization of a Novel Peptide Ligand Targeting Human Carbonic Anhydrase IX

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    BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a hypoxia-regulated transmembrane protein over-expressed in various types of human cancer. Recently, a new peptide with affinity for human carbonic anhydrase IX (CaIX-P1) was identified using the phage display technology. Aim of the present study is to characterize the binding site in the sequence of CaIX-P1, in order to optimize the binding and metabolic properties and use it for targeting purposes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Various fragments of CaIX-P1 were synthesized on solid support using Fmoc chemistry. Alanine scanning was performed for identification of the amino acids crucial for target binding. Derivatives with increased binding affinity were radiolabeled and in vitro studies were carried out on the CA IX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52 and the CA IX negative human pancreatic carcinoma cell line BxPC3. Metabolic stability was investigated in cell culture medium and human serum. Organ distribution and planar scintigraphy studies were performed in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted SKRC 52 tumors. The results of our studies clearly identified amino acids that are important for target binding. Among various fragments and derivatives the ligand CaIX-P1-4-10 (NHVPLSPy) was found to possess increased binding potential in SKRC 52 cells, whereas no binding capacity for BxPC3 cells was observed. Binding of radiolabeled CaIX-P1-4-10 on CA IX positive cells could be inhibited by both the unlabeled and the native CaIX-P1 peptide but not by control peptides. Stability experiments indicated the degradation site in the sequence of CaIX-P1-4-10. Biodistribution studies showed a higher in vivo accumulation in the tumor than in most healthy tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Our data reveal modifications in the sequence of the CA IX affine ligand CaIX-P1 that might be favorable for improvement of target affinity and metabolic stability, which are necessary prior to the use of the ligand in clinical approaches

    The HERMES Spectrometer

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    The HERMES experiment is collecting data on inclusive and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering of polarised positrons from polarised targets of Il, D, and He-3. These data give information on the spin structure of the nucleon. This paper describes the forward angle spectrometer built for this purpose. The spectrometer includes numerous tracking chambers (micro-strip gas chambers, drift and proportional chambers) in front of and behind a 1.3 T.m magnetic field, as well as an extensive set of detectors for particle identification (a lead-glass calorimeter, a pre-shower detector, a transition radiation detector, and a threshold Cherenkov detector). Two of the main features of the spectrometer are its good acceptance and identification of both positrons and hadrons, in particular pions. These characteristics, together with the purity of the targets, are allowing HERMES to make unique contributions to the understanding of how the spins of the quarks contribute to the spin of the nucleon. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Lifesaver or a device looking for a disease?

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    Who needs an implantable defibrillator?

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    Parameter studies on the oxidation and the strength behaviour of silicon nitride

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    Kurzfassung eines Vortrags, gehalten auf dem 2. NATO-ASI 'Nitrogen Ceramics', 27.7.-7.8.81, in Farmer, BrightonTIB Hannover: RN 6902 (8115) / FIZ - Fachinformationszzentrum Karlsruhe / TIB - Technische InformationsbibliothekSIGLEDEGerman

    Brazing of silicon nitride

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    Kurzfassung eines Vortrags, gehalten auf dem 2. Nato-ASI 'Nitrogen Ceramics', 17.7.-7.8.81, in Falmer, BrightonTIB Hannover: RN 6902 (8112) / FIZ - Fachinformationszzentrum Karlsruhe / TIB - Technische InformationsbibliothekSIGLEDEGerman
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