24 research outputs found

    Sb@Ni6 superstructure units stabilize Li-rich layered cathode in the wide voltage window

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    In the practical operations of Li-ion batteries, inevitable deep charge/discharge happens locally due to the intrinsic (de)lithiation inhomogeneity at the electrode and particle level, which would damage the health of batteries and even cause the safety concern. It is essential to develop the stable cathodes operating in a wide voltage window to ensure the health and safety of Li-ion batteries. Herein, we comprehensively investigate the charge/discharge behaviors of a representative Li-rich cathode Li1.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13O2 in a wide voltage window of 1.0–4.8 V, and reveal that, deep-lithiation would drive violent TM migration and severe Li/TM mixing, thereby leading to the irreversible structural transformation from layered to spinel then to rock salt, eventually causing the fast decay in electrochemical performance. Based on these understandings, a novel Li-rich cathode Li[Li1/4Mn1/2Ni1/6Sb1/12]O2 is successfully synthesized through introducing aromatic Sb@Ni6 superstructure units in the TM layers. The introduced Sb@Ni6 superstructure units can effectively tune the local oxygen environment, suppress TM migration, and stabilize the layered framework under deep lithiation. Finally, a stable charge/discharge is achieved in 1.0–4.8 V. This work deepens the understanding into the structural stability of Li-rich cathodes in a wide voltage window, and benefits the development of high-energy-density and safe cathodes

    Using Ipomoea aquatic as an environmental-friendly alternative to Elodea nuttallii for the aquaculture of Chinese mitten crab

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    Elodea nuttallii is widely used in Chinese mitten crab (CMC) rearing practice, but it is not a native aquatic plant and cannot endure high temperature. Thus, large E. nuttallii mortality and water deterioration events could occur during high-temperature seasons. The aim of this study was to identify the use of local macrophytes in CMC rearing practice, including Ipomoea aquatic and Oryza sativa. A completely randomized field experiment was conducted to investigate the crab yield, water quality, bacterioplankton community and functions in the three different systems (E. nuttallii, I. aquatic, and O. sativa). Average crab yields in the different macrophyte systems did not differ significantly. The I. aquatic and O. sativa systems significantly decreased the total nitrogen and nitrate-N quantities in the outflow waters during the rearing period compared to the E. nuttallii system, and the I. aquatic and O. sativa plants assimilated more nitrogen than the E. nuttallii plant. Moreover, the significant changes of bacterioplankton abundances and biodiversity in the three systems implied that cleanliness of rearing waters was concomitantly attributed to the differential microbial community and functions. In addition, principle component analysis successfully differentiated the bacterioplankton communities of the three macrophytes systems. Environmental factor fitting and the co-occurrence network analyses indicated that pH was the driver of bacterioplankton community structure. Functional predictions using PICRUSt (v.1.1.3) software based on evolutionary modeling indicated a higher potential for microbial denitrification in the I. aquatic and O. sativa systems. Notably, the O. sativa plants stopped growing in the middle of the rearing period. Thus, the I. aquatic system rather than the O. sativa system could be a feasible and environmental-friendly alternative to the E. nuttallii system in CMC rearing practice

    Ralstonia solanacearum pathogen disrupts bacterial rhizosphere microbiome during an invasion

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    Plant pathogen invasions are often associated with changes in physical environmental conditions and the composition of host-associated rhizosphere microbiome. It is however unclear how these factors interact and correlate with each other in determining plant disease dynamics in natural field conditions. To study this, we temporally sampled the rhizosphere of tomato plants that were exposed to moderate to aggressive Ralstonia solanacearum pathogen invasions over one crop season. We found that physiochemical soil properties correlated weakly with the severity of pathogen invasion apart from the water-soluble nitrogen concentration, which increased more clearly during the aggressive invasion. Instead, a much stronger link was found between pathogen invasion and reduced abundance and diversity of various rhizosphere bacterial taxa, simplification of bacterial interaction networks and loss of several predicted functional genes. We further verified our results in a separate greenhouse experiment to show that pathogen invasion causally drives similar changes in rhizosphere microbiome diversity and composition under controlled environmental conditions. Our results suggest that R. solanacearum invasion disrupts rhizosphere bacterial communities leading to clear reduction in the diversity and abundance of non-pathogenic bacteria. These changes could potentially affect the likelihood of secondary pathogen invasions during following crop seasons as less diverse microbial communities are also often less resistant to invasions. Strong negative correlation between pathogen and non-pathogenic bacterial densities further suggest that relative pathogen abundance could better predict the severity of bacterial wilt disease outbreaks compared to absolute pathogen abundance. Monitoring the dynamics of whole microbiomes could thus open new avenues for more accurate disease diagnostics in the future

    Combined use of network inference tools identifies ecologically meaningful bacterial associations in a paddy soil

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    High-throughput sequencing technologies have recently made it possible to interrogate the phylogenetic diversity of soils at considerable depth. This ability has led to the development of many computational tools to infer interaction networks from environmental samples. Although such tools have widely been used, they have more often served as a visual means to compare microbial communities across environmental gradients than as a means to appreciate microbial interactions associated with certain ecological processes. Previous studies have often regarded a subnetwork (module) as a functional unit but its functionality in ecological context has never been evidenced. To make better use of these tools in appreciating microbial interactions, we propose the combinational use of different inference tools. This ensemble approach permits the use of more independent predictors and the removal of tool-specific predictions in order to increase prediction accuracy. The purpose of the present study is to identify ecologically meaningful bacterial associations using multi-tool approach. Soil samples were collected in time series from experimental paddy rice plots. Bacterial communities were characterized by high-throughput tag sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. We used three tools, Co-occurrence Network inference (CoNet), Molecular Ecological Network Analysis (MENA) and extended Local Similarity Analysis (eLSA), to infer networks from abundance profiles, partitioned the networks into modules, screened for the modules with ≥50% of genus-/species-level nodes, captured the modules that were derived from different tools and shared ≥ 50% of order-level nodes (tool-agreed modules) and tested their robustness against the changes in the tool parameters. By these procedures, two three-tool-agreed modules were found. One represented a guild that is phenotypically associated with aerobic respiration and fermentation and the other represented a guild phenotypically associated with metal/sulphur cycles, all of which are essential processes of water-submerged paddy soils that are mediated by bacteria. These data suggested that the linked members in a module were functionally associated taxa that work together to achieve a distinct function or an ecological process, and thus were ecologically meaningful to the environment. We selected three linked species from a three-tool-agreed module and validated their interactions using co-culture methods. Results showed that the interaction type between Janthinobacterium lividum and Leuconostoc lactis in the two-species mixture was validated to be ambivalent, positive for one partner and negative for the other. However, this type of interaction was not retained when a third party Lactococcus piscium was introduced, signifying the complexity of multi-species interactions. Validation results suggested that the selected species were interacting partners in laboratory but the validated interaction types were different from those inferred. By multi-tool approach, we also found that highly linked nodes, which are often referred to as “keystone species” and are frequently interpreted as the species playing important roles in soils, are tool dependent. Among top ten highly linked nodes, only four are conserved across three tools. These results suggest more research is required on the ecological significance of degree-based identification of keystone species. Overall, the present study highlights the potential utility of combined use of inference tools to identify ecologically meaningful bacterial associations in soils and other environmental samples. It is interesting to see what type of ecologically meaningful bacterial associations can be found in other soils.publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Combined use of network inference tools identifies ecologically meaningful bacterial associations in a paddy soil journaltitle: Soil Biology and Biochemistry articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.11.029 content_type: article copyright: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.status: publishe

    Early middle triassic stromatolites from the Luoping area, Yunnan province, southwest China: Geobiologic features and environmental implications

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    Early Middle Triassic stromatolites are documented for the first time from the Guanling Formation of the Luoping area, eastern Yunnan Province, SW China. The Luoping stromatolites show six types of constructional microbial forms: ?1) typical stratified columnar structures with crinkled laminae. Dark colored laminae are composed of filamentous cyanobacteria, showing a vertical growth fabric. ?2) Laminoid fenestrae and ?3) clotted structures are also commonly present; these clotted fabrics also show an interweaved pattern of ?4) prostrate filaments, which are reflected by strong fluorescence in sharp contrast to dolomite cement in fluorescent images. ?5) Rod-like aggregates, filled with minute dolomite rhombs, are very common in laminae; they resemble present-day cyanobacterial trichome, and thus may represent fossilized cyanobacteria. ?6) Moreover, small pits, coccoid spheroids, calcified biofilms, and fibrous structures are also common in stromatolite laminae. The last two may represent calcified extra-cellular polymer secretions (EPS) that contribute to the development and lithification of stromatolites. Authigenic quartz grains are also common and may have involved biological processes in their formation. These six functional-groups driving accretion and lithification processes of stromatolite documented in literature, both the lithified cyanobacteria/oxygenic phototrophs and sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which induced microbial formation of dolomite are evident in the Luoping stromatolites, suggestive of biogenic origin. The Luoping stromatolites differ from the Early Triassic counterparts in having a great amount of biomass in filamentous cyanobacteria and SRB, whereas both anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and SRB characterize the Early Triassic stromatolites. Abundant filamentous cyanobacteria may indicate proliferation of oxygenic phototrophs in a normal, oxic habitat. However, abundant SRB indicate sulfate reduction in a stressed habitat. Accordingly, the Luoping stromatolites, coupled with coeval unusual biosedimentary structures, indicate that the post-extinction devastated oceanic conditions may not only have prevailed in the Early Triassic but also have extended to the early Anisian (Middle Triassic) in South China, just before the full recovery of marine ecosystems in middle-late Anisian.111 Program of China (B08030 to SCX); National Natural 460 Science Foundation grant (No 41272023 to ZQC); grant-in-aid for the study on the 10 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 Permian−Triassic mass extinction and recovery from the State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences (to ZQC)

    Microbial Community Diversities and Taxa Abundances in Soils along a Seven-Year Gradient of Potato Monoculture Using High Throughput Pyrosequencing Approach

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Previous studies have focused on linking soil community structure, diversity, or specific taxa to disturbances. Relatively little attention has been directed to crop monoculture soils, particularly potato monoculture. Information about microbial community changes over time between monoculture and non-monoculture treatments is lacking. Furthermore, few studies have examined microbial communities in potato monoculture soils using a high throughput pyrosequencing approach.</p><p>Methodology/Principal Findings</p><p>Soils along a seven-year gradient of potato monoculture were collected and microbial communities were characterized using high throughput pyrosequencing approach. Principal findings are as follows. First, diversity (<i>H</i><sub>Shannon</sub>) and richness (<i>S</i><sub>Chao1</sub>) indices of bacterial community, but not of fungal community, were linearly decreased over time and corresponded to a decline of soil sustainability represented by yield decline and disease incidence increase. Second, <i>Fusarium</i>, the only soilborne pathogen-associated fungal genus substantially detected, was linearly increased over time in abundance and was closely associated with yield decline. Third, <i>Fusarium</i> abundance was negatively correlated with soil organic matter (OM) and total nitrogen (TN) but positively with electrical conductivity (EC). Fourth, <i>Fusarium</i> was correlated in abundances with 6 bacterial taxa over time.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Soil bacterial and fungal communities exhibited differential responses to the potato monoculture. The overall soil bacterial communities were shaped by potato monoculture. <i>Fusarium</i> was the only soilborne pathogen-associated genus associated with disease incidence increase and yield decline. The changes of soil OM, TN and EC were responsible for <i>Fusarium</i> enrichment, in addition to selections by the monoculture crop. <i>Acidobacteria</i> and <i>Nitrospirae</i> were linearly decreased over time in abundance, corresponding to the decrease of OM, suggesting their similar ecophysiologial trait. Correlations between abundance of <i>Fusarium</i> with several other bacterial taxa suggested their similar behaviors in responses to potato monoculture and/or soil variables, providing insights into the ecological behaviors of these taxa in the environment.</p></div

    Use of a Green Fluorescent Protein-Based Reporter Fusion for Detection of Nitric Oxide Produced by Denitrifiers

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    To determine if green fluorescent protein could be used as a reporter for detecting nitric oxide production, gfp was fused to nnrS from Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.3. nnrS was chosen because its expression requires nitric oxide. The presence of the fusion in R. sphaeroides 2.4.3 resulted in a significant increase in fluorescent intensity of the cells, but only when nitrite reductase was active. Cells lacking nitrite reductase activity and consequently the ability to generate nitric oxide were only weakly fluorescent when grown under denitrification-inducing conditions. One of the R. sphaeroides strains unable to generate nitric oxide endogenously was used as a reporter to detect exogenously produced nitric oxide. Incubation of this strain with sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide generator, significantly increased its fluorescence intensity. Mixing of known denitrifiers with the reporter strain also led to significant increases in fluorescence intensity, although the level varied depending on the denitrifier used. The reporter was tested on unknown isolates capable of growing anaerobically in the presence of nitrate, and one of these was able to induce expression of the fusion. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate placed it within the Thauera aromatica subgroup, which is known to contain denitrifiers. These experiments demonstrate that this green fluorescent protein-based assay provides a useful method for assessing the ability of bacteria to produce nitric oxide
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