25,782 research outputs found

    Differential Nitrous oxide emission and microbiota succession in constructed wetlands induced by nitrogen forms

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    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission during the sewage treatment process is a serious environmental issue that requires attention. However, the N2O emission in constructed wetlands (CWs) as affected by different nitrogen forms in influents remain largely unknown. This study investigated the N2O emission profiles driven by microorganisms in CWs when exposed to two typical nitrogen sources (NH4+-N or NO3–-N) along with different carbon source supply (COD/N ratios: 3, 6, and 9). The results showed that CWs receiving NO3–-N caused a slight increase in total nitrogen removal (by up to 11.8 %). This increase was accomplished by an enrichment of key bacteria groups, including denitrifiers, dissimilatory nitrate reducers, and assimilatory nitrate reducers, which enhanced the stability of microbial interaction. Additionally, it led to a greater abundance of denitrification genes (e.g., nirK, norB, norC, and nosZ) as inferred from the database. Consequently, this led to a gradual increase in N2O emission from 66.51 to 486.77 ug-N/(m2·h) as the COD/N ratio increased in CWs. Conversely, in CWs receiving NH4+-N, an increasing influent COD/N ratio had a negative impact on nitrogen biotransformation. This resulted in fluctuating trend of N2O emissions, which decreased initially, followed by an increase at later stage (with values of 122.87, 44.00, and 148.59 ug-N/(m2·h)). Furthermore, NH4+-N in the aquatic improved the nitrogen uptake by plants and promoted the production of more root exudates. As a result, it adjusted the nitrogen-transforming function, ultimately reducing N2O emissions in CWs. This study highlights the divergence in microbiota succession and nitrogen transformation in CWs induced by nitrogen form and COD/N ratio, contributing to a better understanding of the microbial mechanisms of N2O emission in CWs with NH4+-N or NO3–-N at different COD/N ratios

    GSH/pH-Sensitive Poly(glycerol sebacate dithiodiglycolate) Nanoparticle as a Ferroptotic Inducer through Cooperation with Fe<sup>3+</sup>

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    Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic cell death induced by an overload of iron initiated through Fenton and Haber–Weiss reactions. These two reactions lead to lethal levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. In contrast, glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) suppress ferroptosis by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Herein, the ferric ion (Fe3+) carriers, poly(glycerol sebacate dithiodiglycolate) nanoparticles (PGSDTG NPs), were prepared via nanoprecipitation. The GSH/pH-dual sensitive Fe3+/PGSDTG NPs would disintegrate via the cleavage of disulfide and ester bonds in the presence of GSH and acidic conditions. The cleaved polymer segments along with released Fe3+ rendered cancer cells showing ferroptosis characteristics including ROS production, transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) expression, and iron accumulation after treatment with Fe3+/PGSDTG NPs. The PGSDTG NPs played an important role in ferroptosis by triggering the oxidation of intracellular GSH and reducing the GPX4 expression. An in vivo experiment also showed that Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) exhibited a shortened lifespan after treatment with NPs. These results indicated that the PGSDTG NPs were potential GSH/pH-sensitive metal ion carriers for anticancer treatment by inducing ferroptosis

    Table_1_Deciphering the influence of dietary synbiotics in white shrimp gut and its effects in regulating immune signaling pathways.doc

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    The health of the host is significantly influenced by the gut microbiota. Penaeus vannamei (white shrimp) is one of the most profitable aquaculture species globally. Synbiotics are typically used as a beneficial diet supplement for raising aquaculture species’ growth capacities and enhancing immunity against pathogenicity. However, the effects of synbiotics on the white shrimp intestinal microbiota remain poorly understood. In the present study, we targeted the V3–V4 region of 16S rRNA genes to analyze the effects of synbiotics on white shrimp gut microbiota. Dietary synbiotics, having Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Moringa oleifera leaf extract were added to the white shrimps’ feed in various proportions in the present study. In total, 490 operational taxonomic units yielding 23 phyla, 41 classes, 94 orders, 151 families, and 250 genera of microorganisms were obtained. The diet containing L. acidophilus at 1 × 107 CFU/g and M. oleifera at 2.5 g/kg led to an increase in the relative abundance of beneficial microorganisms through a significant decrease in the α diversity. Moreover, it upregulated several physiological pathways such as carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and environmental adaptation, which led to the upregulation of the AMPK, MAPK, P13K-Akt, lysosome, peroxisome, and ferroptosis signaling pathways; this enhanced growth and immunity in white shrimp. Whether a single species or a combination of different microorganisms improves growth and immunity remains unclear till now. Nevertheless, our results will facilitate further in-depth investigation into beneficial microbial communities for upliftment of white shrimp aquaculture.</p

    DataSheet_1_COPD and T2DM: a Mendelian randomization study.docx

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    IntroductionType 2 diabetes (T2DM) stands as a global chronic illness, exerting a profound impact on health due to its complications and generating a significant economic burden. Recently, observational studies have pointed toward a potential link between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and T2DM. To elucidate this causal connection, we employed the Mendelian randomization analysis.MethodOur study involved a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis on COPD and T2DM. Additionally, tests for heterogeneity and horizontal pleiotropy were performed.ResultsFor the MR analysis, 26 independent single nucleotides polymorphisms (SNPs) with strong associations to COPD were chosen as instrumental variables. Our findings suggest a pronounced causal relationship between COPD and T2DM. Specifically, COPD emerges as a risk factor for T2DM, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.06 and a 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.01 to 1.11 (P = 0.006). Notably, all results were devoid of any heterogeneity or pleiotropy.ConclusionThe MR analysis underscores a significant causal relationship between COPD and T2DM, highlighting COPD as a prominent risk factor for T2DM.</p

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb−1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ±\pm 0.002 (stat) ±\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ±\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    The neural correlates of arousal: Ventral posterolateral nucleus-global transient co-activation

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    Summary: Arousal and awareness are two components of consciousness whose neural mechanisms remain unclear. Spontaneous peaks of global (brain-wide) blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal have been found to be sensitive to changes in arousal. By contrasting BOLD signals at different arousal levels, we find decreased activation of the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) during transient peaks in the global signal in low arousal and awareness states (non-rapid eye movement sleep and anesthesia) compared to wakefulness and in eyes-closed compared to eyes-open conditions in healthy awake individuals. Intriguingly, VPL-global co-activation remains high in patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), who exhibit high arousal without awareness, while it reduces in rapid eye movement sleep, a state characterized by low arousal but high awareness. Furthermore, lower co-activation is found in individuals during N3 sleep compared to patients with UWS. These results demonstrate that co-activation of VPL and global activity is critical to arousal but not to awareness

    Multiplicity dependence of σψ(2S)/σJ/ψ\sigma_{\psi(2S)}/\sigma_{J/\psi} in pppp collisions at s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV

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    International audienceThe ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy s=13\sqrt{s}=13 TeV is measured with a data sample collected by the LHCb detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 658 pb−1^{-1}. The ratio is measured for both prompt and non-prompt ψ(2S)\psi(2S) and J/ψJ/\psi mesons. When there is an overlap between the rapidity ranges over which multiplicity and charmonia production are measured, a multiplicity-dependent modification of the ratio is observed for prompt mesons. No significant multiplicity dependence is found when the ranges do not overlap. For non-prompt production, the ψ(2S)−to−J/ψ\psi(2S)-to-J/\psi production ratio is roughly independent of multiplicity irrespective of the rapidity range over which the multiplicity is measured. The results are compared to predictions of the co-mover model and agree well except in the low multiplicity region. The ratio of production cross-sections of ψ(2S)\psi(2S) over J/ψJ/\psi mesons are cross-checked with other measurements in di-lepton channels and found to be compatible

    CEPC Technical Design Report -- Accelerator