506 research outputs found

    Co-treatment of nicotinamide mononucleotide and neoagarooligosaccharide mitigates aging-induced cognitive impairment by promoting mitochondrial dynamics

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    The synergistic effects of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOS) on mitochondrial dysfunction, downstream apoptosis, and inflammation were evaluated in both senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice and H2O2-induced human lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells. Co-treatment of NMN and NAOS effectively ameliorated the learning and memory impairment in the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze tests. MNN and NAOS supplementation increased the expression levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins in the brain of SAMP8 mice, including OPA1 (by 37.4%) and Mitofusin 2 (by 99.7%). Moreover, co-treatment of NMN and NAOS significantly inhibited cell apoptosis as shown by the reduced protein expression levels of Bax and Caspase-3, down-regulated P53/P21/P16 pathway in both SAMP8 mice and H2O2-induced MRC-5 cells. At the same time, dietary intervention of NMN combined with NAOS attenuated the inflammatory response via down-regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Conclusively, the synergistic efficacy of the combination of NMN and NAOS can improve cognitive impairment by modulating mitochondrial dysfunction

    Forensic analysis and sequence variation of 133 STRs in the Hakka population

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    Introduction: Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are highly valuable genetic markers in forensic science. However, the conventional PCR-CE technique has limitations, and the emergence of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology presents new opportunities for STR analysis. Yet, there is limited research on Chinese population diversity using MPS.Methods: In this study, we obtained genotype data for 52 A-STRs and 81 Y-STRs from the Hakka population in Meizhou, Guangdong, China, using the Forensic Analysis System Multiplecues SetB Kit on the MGISEQ-2000 platform.Results: Our findings demonstrate that these 133 STRs are highly efficient for forensic applications within the Meizhou Hakka population. Statistical analysis revealed Hobs values ranging from 0.61306 to 0.91083 and Hexp values ranging from 0.59156 to 0.91497 for A-STRs based on length polymorphism. For sequence polymorphism, Hobs values ranged from 0.61306 to 0.94586, and Hexp values fluctuated between 0.59156 and 0.94487. The CPE values were 1-5.0779620E-21 and 1-3.257436E-24 for length and sequence polymorphism, respectively, while the CPD values were 1-1.727007E-59 and 1-5.517015E-66, respectively. Among the 80 Y-STR loci, the HD values for length and sequence polymorphism were 0.99764282 and 0.99894195, respectively. The HMP values stood at 0.00418102 and 0.00288427, respectively, and the DC values were 0.75502742 and 0.83363803, respectively. For the 52 A-STR loci, we identified 554 and 989 distinct alleles based on length and sequence polymorphisms, respectively. For the 81 Y-STR loci, 464 and 652 unique alleles were detected at the length and sequence level, respectively. Population genetic analysis revealed that the Meizhou Hakka population has a close kinship relationship with the Asian populations THI and KOR based on length polymorphism data of A-STRs. Conversely, based on length polymorphism data of Y-STRs, the Meizhou Hakka population has the closest kinship relationship with the Henan Han population.Discussion: Overall, the variation information of repeat region sequences significantly enhances the forensic identification efficacy of STR genetic markers, providing an essential database for forensic individual and paternity testing in this region. Additionally, the data generated by our study will serve as a vital resource for research into the genetic structure and historical origins of the Meizhou Hakka population

    Data_Sheet_1_Pathogenicity and functional analysis of CFAP410 mutations causing cone-rod dystrophy with macular staphyloma.docx

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    BackgroundCone-rod dystrophy (CORD) caused by pathogenic variants in CFAP410 is a very rare disease. The mechanisms by which the variants caused the disease remained largely unknown. CFAP410 pathogenic variants were identified in a cone-rod dystrophy with macular staphyloma patient. We explored the pathogenicity and performed functional analysis of two compound heterozygous mutations.MethodsA 6-year-old boy complained decreased vision for 1 year, underwent ocular examinations together with systemic X-ray check. Blood sample was taken for targeted next generation sequencing (Tg-NGS). Pathogenicity of identified variants was determined by ACMG guideline. Mutated plasmids were constructed and transferred to HEK293T cells. Cell cycle, protein stability, and protein ubiquitination level was measured.ResultsThe best-corrected visual acuity of proband was 0.20 bilaterally. Fundus showed macular staphyloma and uneven granular pigment disorder in the periphery of the retina. SS-OCT showed thinning and atrophy of the outer retina, residual ellipsoid zone (EZ) in the fovea. Scotopic and photopic ERG responses severe reduced. Two heterozygous missense pathogenic variants, c.319 T > C (p.Tyr107His) and c.347 C > T (p.Pro116Leu) in exon 4 of the CFAP410, were found and were pathogenic by the ACMG guideline. In vitro, pathogenic variants affect cell cycle. Immunofluorescence and western blotting showed that the mutant proteins decreased expression levels protein stability. Meanwhile, co-IP data suggested that ubiquitination level was altered in cells transferred with the mutated plasmids.ConclusionCompound heterozygous pathogenic variants c.319 T > C and c.347 C > T in CFAP410 caused CORD with macular staphyloma. The pathogenic mechanisms may be associated with alternations of protein stability and degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.</p

    Relationship between Thermal Conductivity and Compressive Strength of Insulation Concrete: A Review

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    Developing insulation concrete with high strength is essential for the construction of energy saving buildings. This is important to achieve carbon neutrality in the modern building industry. This paper reviews the existing studies in the literature on insulation concrete. This paper aims to reveal the correlation between the thermal conductivity and strength of concrete and identify the most effective method to make insulation concrete with lower thermal conductivity but higher strength. The review is carried out from two perspectives, including the effects of different foaming methods and various lightweight aggregates. As for the foaming methods, the chemical and mechanical foaming methods are discussed. As for the lightweight aggregates, cenospheres, porous aggregates, aerogels, and phase change materials are assessed. It is clearly observed that the thermal conductivity and compressive strength of concrete can be fitted by a linear function. As for the foaming methods, chemical foaming using hydrogen peroxide is the most effective to produce concrete with relatively lower thermal conductivity and higher compressive strength. For concrete with lightweight aggregates, cenospheres are the best option. Finally, recommendations are made to develop concrete with lower thermal conductivity and higher strength

    Reconfigurable Transmitarray Based on Frequency Selective Surface for 2D Wide-Angle Beam Steering

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    A novel reconfigurable transmitarray (RTA) with two-dimensional (2D) wide beam steering capability is presented herein. Different from the traditional RTA with the discrete phase compensation (one-bit or multi-bits phase shift), a second order parallel bandpass filter model is used to realize the RTA elements with a 180° continuous phase compensation. A sandwich structure composed of the two patches with rectangular slots and the middle ground sheet with the cruciform slot is constructed for the phase shift characteristics of the frequency selective surface (FSS), and two varactor diodes are loaded across the rectangular slots on the two top and bottom patches. The simulated results show that the proposed elements could achieve continuous transmission phase compensation from 0° to 180° with a 3 dB insert loss within the operating band of 11.8–12.6 GHz. The RTA prototype with 16×16 elements and an aperture size of 6λ0×6λ0 at 12.2 GHz is fabricated and measured for experimental verification. The measured results show that its beam scanning range can reach ±50° in both horizontal and vertical planes with a peak gain of 22.76 dBi and a aperture efficiency of 24.65%. Furthermore, the sidelobe levels (SLLs) are lower than −17.8 dB, which is much better than most RTAs. The proposed RTA has potential applications in radar, microwave imaging and wireless communication systems with low-cost fabrication and a stable performance

    Congener Variation of Genetic Dependent-Developmental Toxicology in Two Emerging Classes of Dioxin-like Compounds

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    Emerging classes of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) like hydroxylated/methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-/MeO-PBDEs) and polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) could lead to diverse adverse outcomes in humans and wildlife, yet knowledge gaps exist in their molecular mechanisms associated with different structures following early life environmental exposure. This study integrated a genetic knockout technique and concentration-dependent reduced zebrafish transcriptome approach (CRZT) to unravel the toxicological pathways underpinning developmental toxicity of four HO-/MeO-PBDEs and five PCDPSs at environmentally relevant doses. Generally, the dependence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the embryotoxicity and transcriptomic potencies induced by the HO-PBDEs and PCDPSs varied across different congeners. The knockout of the ahr2 gene led to 1.02- to 76.48-fold decreases of DLC-induced embryotoxicities and reduced the transcriptome-based potencies ranging from 1.38 to 2124.74 folds in the CRZT test. The fold changes denoting AhR-mediated potentials significantly increased with the increasing chlorination degrees of MeO-PBDEs and PCDPSs (p ahr2 knockout primarily affected the DLC-induced early molecular responses relevant to DNA damage, enzyme activation, and organ development. Our integrated approach revealed the differential role of AhR in mediating the developmental toxicity of emerging DLCs possessing varied structures at environmentally relevant doses

    SYENet: A Simple Yet Effective Network for Multiple Low-Level Vision Tasks with Real-time Performance on Mobile Device

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    With the rapid development of AI hardware accelerators, applying deep learning-based algorithms to solve various low-level vision tasks on mobile devices has gradually become possible. However, two main problems still need to be solved: task-specific algorithms make it difficult to integrate them into a single neural network architecture, and large amounts of parameters make it difficult to achieve real-time inference. To tackle these problems, we propose a novel network, SYENet, with only  ~6K parameters, to handle multiple low-level vision tasks on mobile devices in a real-time manner. The SYENet consists of two asymmetrical branches with simple building blocks. To effectively connect the results by asymmetrical branches, a Quadratic Connection Unit(QCU) is proposed. Furthermore, to improve performance, a new Outlier-Aware Loss is proposed to process the image. The proposed method proves its superior performance with the best PSNR as compared with other networks in real-time applications such as Image Signal Processing(ISP), Low-Light Enhancement(LLE), and Super-Resolution(SR) with 2K60FPS throughput on Qualcomm 8 Gen 1 mobile SoC(System-on-Chip). Particularly, for ISP task, SYENet got the highest score in MAI 2022 Learned Smartphone ISP challenge

    Rice Genomics Research, Gene Mining and Utilization: A Themed Issue Dedicated to Academician/Prof. Yingguo Zhu

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    We are honored and privileged to edit this Special Issue, “Rice Genomics Research, Gene Mining and Utilization: A Themed Issue Dedicated to Academician Yingguo Zhu” [...

    Novel QTLs from Wild Rice Oryza longistaminata Confer Strong Tolerance to High Temperature at Seedling Stage

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    Global warming poses a threat to rice production. Breeding heat-tolerant rice is an effective and economical approach to address this challenge. African rice is a valuable genetic resource for developing heat-tolerant crops due to its intricate mechanism for adapting to high temperatures. Oryza longistaminata, a widely distributed wild rice species in Africa, may harbor an even richer gene pool for heat tolerance, which remains untapped. In this study, we identified three heat tolerance QTLs from O. longistaminata at the seedling stage, including novel heat tolerance loci qTT4 and qTT5. Our findings demonstrated that the O. longistaminata alleles for these two QTLs can enhance the heat tolerance of rice seedlings. Remarkably, qTT5 was mapped to a region spanning approximately 287.2 kb, which contains 46 expressing genes. Through the analysis of Gene Ontology and expression differences under heat induction, we identified four candidate genes. Our results lay the foundation for discovering heat tolerance genes underlying O. longistaminata and developing new genetic resources for heat-tolerant rice breeding

    Congener Variation of Genetic Dependent-Developmental Toxicology in Two Emerging Classes of Dioxin-like Compounds

    No full text
    Emerging classes of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) like hydroxylated/methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (HO-/MeO-PBDEs) and polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) could lead to diverse adverse outcomes in humans and wildlife, yet knowledge gaps exist in their molecular mechanisms associated with different structures following early life environmental exposure. This study integrated a genetic knockout technique and concentration-dependent reduced zebrafish transcriptome approach (CRZT) to unravel the toxicological pathways underpinning developmental toxicity of four HO-/MeO-PBDEs and five PCDPSs at environmentally relevant doses. Generally, the dependence of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) on the embryotoxicity and transcriptomic potencies induced by the HO-PBDEs and PCDPSs varied across different congeners. The knockout of the ahr2 gene led to 1.02- to 76.48-fold decreases of DLC-induced embryotoxicities and reduced the transcriptome-based potencies ranging from 1.38 to 2124.74 folds in the CRZT test. The fold changes denoting AhR-mediated potentials significantly increased with the increasing chlorination degrees of MeO-PBDEs and PCDPSs (p ahr2 knockout primarily affected the DLC-induced early molecular responses relevant to DNA damage, enzyme activation, and organ development. Our integrated approach revealed the differential role of AhR in mediating the developmental toxicity of emerging DLCs possessing varied structures at environmentally relevant doses
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