64 research outputs found

    Development of a diagnostic rule for identifying radiographic osteoarthritis in people with first metatarsophalangeal joint pain

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    SummaryObjectiveTo develop a diagnostic rule for the identification of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) in people with first MTPJ pain.DesignSymptoms and clinical observations were documented in 181 people with first MTPJ pain, and the presence of OA was confirmed using plain film radiography. Diagnostic test statistics were calculated to assess the ability of symptoms and clinical observations to identify radiographic OA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to develop two diagnostic models: a statistically optimal model and a simplified clinical model.ResultsMultivariate logistic regression identified pain duration greater than 25 months, the presence of a dorsal exostosis, hard-end feel, crepitus and less than 64° of first MTPJ dorsiflexion to be significantly associated with radiographic OA. The statistically optimal model and clinical model performed similarly, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves being 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81–0.93) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80–0.93), respectively, and the percentage of cases correctly classified being 86.2 and 85.6, respectively. A cut-off score of ≄3 using the clinical model resulted in a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 71%, accuracy of 84%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.07 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.17.ConclusionsIn people with first MTPJ pain, a model consisting of five clinical observations can accurately identify the presence or absence of radiographic OA. The application of this diagnostic rule may assist clinical decision making and potentially reduce the need for referral for radiographs

    Effectiveness of dry needling and injections of myofascial trigger points associated with plantar heel pain: a systematic review

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies of the foot. Plantar heel pain can be managed with dry needling and/or injection of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) however the evidence for its effectiveness is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the current evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We searched specific electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and AMI) in April 2010 to identify randomised and non-randomised trials. We included trials where participants diagnosed with plantar heel pain were treated with dry needling and/or injections (local anaesthetics, steroids, Botulinum toxin A and saline) alone or in combination with acupuncture. Outcome measures that focussed on pain and function were extracted from the data. Trials were assessed for quality using the Quality Index tool.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Three quasi-experimental trials matched the inclusion criteria<it>: </it>two trials found a reduction in pain for the use of trigger point dry needling when combined with acupuncture and the third found a reduction in pain using 1% lidocaine injections when combined with physical therapy. However, the methodological quality of the three trials was poor, with Quality Index scores ranging form 7 to 12 out of a possible score of 27. A meta-analysis was not conducted because substantial heterogeneity was present between trials.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of dry needling and/or injections of MTrPs associated with plantar heel pain. However, the poor quality and heterogeneous nature of the included studies precludes definitive conclusions being made. Importantly, this review highlights the need for future trials to use rigorous randomised controlled methodology with measures such as blinding to reduce bias. We also recommend that such trials adhere to the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) to ensure transparency.</p

    Effect of a culturally safe student placement on students’ understanding of, and confidence with, providing culturally safe podiatry care

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    Background: For university-based podiatry education there are little data available documenting the delivery method and impact of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health curricula or the use of, and outcomes from, immersive clinical placements generally or specific to podiatry practice. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of undertaking clinical placement in a culturally safe podiatry service for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples on podiatry students’ understanding of, and confidence with, providing culturally safe podiatry care. Methods: Final year University of Newcastle undergraduate podiatry students attending a culturally safe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander student clinic at a local hospital were purposively recruited to participate. Students completed a custom-made and pilot-tested cultural awareness and capability survey before and after placement. Survey domains were determined from a principle component analysis. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used to compare pre-placement scores on each domain of the survey to the post-placements scores. Effect sizes were calculated and interpreted as small (0.1–0.29), medium (0.3–0.49), and large (≄0.5). Results: This study recruited 58 final year University of Newcastle podiatry students to complete baseline and follow-up surveys. For survey domain 1 (level of understanding of power relationships), domain 2 (level of understanding of the interrelationship between culture and self-perceived health), domain 3 (level of understanding of the importance of culture in clinical practice and access to health care), and domain 4 (level of confidence with providing culturally safe care) a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in scores was recorded post-placement. The effect sizes were medium to large. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that an immersive student placement at a culturally safe podiatry clinic significantly improved students’ understanding of, and confidence with, providing culturally appropriate care to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. This study provides foundation evidence of the role that such placements have on developing students’ cultural capability in a tertiary health care setting, and will help inform future curricula development at both educational institutions and health services, as well as form the basis for ongoing research

    Radiographic correlates of hallux valgus severity in older people

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The severity of hallux valgus is easily appreciated by its clinical appearance, however x-ray measurements are also frequently used to evaluate the condition, particularly if surgery is being considered. There have been few large studies that have assessed the validity of these x-ray observations across a wide spectrum of the deformity. In addition, no studies have specifically focused on older people where the progression of the disorder has largely ceased. Therefore, this study aimed to explore relationships between relevant x-ray observations with respect to hallux valgus severity in older people.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This study utilised 402 x-rays of 201 participants (74 men and 127 women) aged 65 to 94 years. All participants were graded using the Manchester Scale - a simple, validated system to grade the severity of hallux valgus - prior to radiographic assessment. A total of 19 hallux valgus-related x-ray observations were performed on each set of x-rays. These measurements were then correlated with the Manchester Scale scores.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Strong, positive correlations were identified between the severity of hallux valgus and the hallux abductus angle, the proximal articular set angle, the sesamoid position and congruency of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. As hallux valgus severity increased, so did the frequency of radiographic osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint and a round first metatarsal head. A strong linear relationship between increased relative length of the first metatarsal and increased severity of hallux valgus was also observed.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Strong associations are evident between the clinical appearance of hallux valgus and a number of hallux valgus-related x-ray observations indicative of structural deformity and joint degeneration. As it is unlikely that metatarsal length increases as a result of hallux valgus deformity, increased length of the first metatarsal relative to the second metatarsal may be a contributing factor to the development and/or progression of hallux valgus.</p

    Plantar pressures in people with midfoot osteoarthritis: cross-sectional findings from the Clinical Assessment Study of the Foot

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    Background Midfoot osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition, however its aetiology is not well understood. Understanding how plantar pressures differ between people with and without midfoot OA may provide insight into the aetiology and how best to manage this condition. Research question To compare plantar pressures between people with and without symptomatic radiographic midfoot OA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of adults aged ≄50 years registered with four UK general practices who reported foot pain in the past year. Symptomatic radiographic midfoot OA was defined as midfoot pain in the last four weeks, combined with radiographic OA in one or more midfoot joints. Cases were matched 1:1 for sex and age (± 5 years) to asymptomatic controls. Peak plantar pressure and maximum force in 10 regions of the foot were determined using a pressure platform (RSscan International, Olen, Belgium) and compared between the groups using independent samples t-tests and effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results We included 61 midfoot OA cases (mean age 67.0, SD 8.1, 31 males, 30 females) and matched these to 61 controls (mean age 66.0, SD 7.9). Midfoot OA cases displayed greater force (d=0.79, medium effect size, p=<0.001) and pressure at the midfoot (d=0.70, medium effect size, p=<0.001), greater force at the fourth metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint (d=0.28, small effect size, p=0.13), and fifth MTP joint (d=0.37, small effect size, p=0.10) and greater pressure at the fifth MTP joint (d=0.34, small effect size, p=0.13). They also displayed lower force (d=0.40, small effect size, p=0.02) and pressure at the hallux (d=0.50, medium effect size, p=<0.001) and lower force (d=0.54, medium effect size, p=<0.001) and pressure at the lesser toes (d=0.48, small effect size, p=<0.001) compared with controls. Significance Midfoot OA appears associated with lowering of the medial longitudinal arch, greater lateral push off and less propulsion at toe off. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish causal relationships

    Structural foot characteristics in people with midfoot osteoarthritis: Cross‐Sectional findings from the clinical assessment study of the foot

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    Objective: This study compared radiographic measures of foot structure between people with and without symptomatic radiographic midfoot osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: This was a cross‐sectional study of adults aged 50 years and older registered with four UK general practices who reported foot pain in the past year. Bilateral weightbearing dorsoplantar and lateral radiographs were obtained. Symptomatic radiographic midfoot OA was defined as midfoot pain in the last 4 weeks, combined with radiographic OA in one or more midfoot joints (first cuneometatarsal, second cuneometatarsal, navicular‐first cuneiform, and talonavicular). Midfoot OA cases were matched 1:1 for sex and age to controls with a 5‐year age tolerance. Eleven radiographic measures were extracted and compared between the groups using independent sample t‐tests and effect sizes (Cohen's d). Results: We identified 63 midfoot OA cases (mean ± SD age was 66.8 ± 8.0 years, with 32 male and 31 female participants) and matched these to 63 controls (mean ± SD age was 65.9 ± 7.8 years). There were no differences in metatarsal lengths between the groups. However, those with midfoot OA had a higher calcaneal‐first metatarsal angle (d = 0.43, small effect size, P = 0.018) and lower calcaneal inclination angle (d = 0.46, small effect size, P = 0.011) compared with controls. Conclusions: People with midfoot OA have a flatter foot posture compared with controls. Although caution is required when inferring causation from cross‐sectional data, these findings are consistent with a pathomechanical pathway linking foot structure to the development of midfoot OA. Prospective studies are required to determine the temporal relationships between foot structure, function, and the development of this common and disabling condition

    Effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Plantar heel pain (plantar fasciitis) is a common and disabling condition, which has a detrimental impact on health-related quality of life. Despite the high prevalence of plantar heel pain, the optimal treatment for this disorder remains unclear. Consequently, an alternative therapy such as dry needling is increasingly being used as an adjunctive treatment by health practitioners. Only two trials have investigated the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain, however both trials were of a low methodological quality. This manuscript describes the design of a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Eighty community-dwelling men and woman aged over 18 years with plantar heel pain (who satisfy the inclusion and exclusion criteria) will be recruited. Eligible participants with plantar heel pain will be randomised to receive either one of two interventions, (i) real dry needling or (ii) sham dry needling. The protocol (including needling details and treatment regimen) was formulated by general consensus (using the Delphi research method) using 30 experts worldwide that commonly use dry needling for plantar heel pain. Primary outcome measures will be the pain subscale of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire and "first step" pain as measured on a visual analogue scale. The secondary outcome measures will be health related quality of life (assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire - Version Two) and depression, anxiety and stress (assessed using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - short version). Primary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 weeks and secondary outcome measures will be performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study is the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of dry needling for plantar heel pain. The trial will be reported in accordance with the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials and the Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines. The findings from this trial will provide evidence for the effectiveness of trigger point dry needling for plantar heel pain.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>Australian New Zealand 'Clinical Trials Registry'. <a href="http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12610000611022.aspx">ACTRN12610000611022</a>.</p
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