253 research outputs found

    PROFITABILITY OF ALFALFA HAY STORAGE USING PROBABILITIES: AN EXTENSION APPROACH

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    Film managers are usually faced with making decisions involving risk and uncertainty. A common source of risk and uncertainty is related to price variability. It is possible to attach probabilities to price variability based on historical data, thus providing the manager with additional information to base decisions. The purpose of this study is to develop and present extension information in a form that assists a producer to choose a marketing strategy based on the producerÂ’s own risk preference. This was done by developing profitability of percentage rates of return based on historical data. Alfalfa hay is used as the commodity example.Crop Production/Industries,

    Unequal arm space-borne gravitational wave detectors

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    Unlike ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors, large space-based systems will not be rigid structures. When the end-stations of the laser interferometer are freely flying spacecraft, the armlengths will change due to variations in the spacecraft positions along their orbital trajectories, so the precise equality of the arms that is required in a laboratory interferometer to cancel laser phase noise is not possible. However, using a method discovered by Tinto and Armstrong, a signal can be constructed in which laser phase noise exactly cancels out, even in an unequal arm interferometer. We examine the case where the ratio of the armlengths is a variable parameter, and compute the averaged gravitational wave transfer function as a function of that parameter. Example sensitivity curve calculations are presented for the expected design parameters of the proposed LISA interferometer, comparing it to a similar instrument with one arm shortened by a factor of 100, showing how the ratio of the armlengths will affect the overall sensitivity of the instrument.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures, REVTeX

    Transition-Region/Coronal Signatures of Penumbral Microjets: Hi-C, SDO/AIA and Hinode (SOT/FG) Observations

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    Penumbral microjets are bright, transient features seen in the chromosphere of sunspot penumbrae. Katsuaka et al. (2007) noted their ubiquity and characterized them using the Ca II H-line filter on Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). The jets are 1000{4000 km in length, 300{400 km in width, and last less than one minute. It was proposed that these penumbral microjets could contribute to the transition-region and coronal heating above sunspots. We examine whether these microjets appear in the transition-region (TR) and/or corona or are related{ temporally and spatially{ to similar brightenings in the TR and/or corona. First, we identify penumbral microjets with the SOT's Ca II H-line filter. The chosen sunspot is observed on July 11, 2012 from 18:50:00 UT to 20:00:00 UT at approx. 14 inches, -30 inches. We then examine the sunspot in the same field of view and at the same time in other wavelengths. We use the High Resolution Coronal Imager Telescope (Hi-C) at 193A and the 1600A, 304A, 171A, 193A, and 94A passbands of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. We include examples of these jets and where they should appear in the other passbands, but find no signifcant association, except for a few jets with longer lifetimes and bigger sizes seen at locations in the penumbra with repeated stronger brightenings. We conclude that the normal microjets are not heated to transition-region/coronal temperatures, but the larger jets are

    Memorandum on Reopening the Dodd-Frank Act Section 956 Incentive Compensation Rule

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    Professor Michael Herz, along with four other administrative law professors, sent a letter to six agencies about legal options regarding a long-delayed rule aimed at executive compensation

    Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers

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    To determine whether particular sources of gravitational radiation will be detectable by a specific gravitational wave detector, it is necessary to know the sensitivity limits of the instrument. These instrumental sensitivities are often depicted (after averaging over source position and polarization) by graphing the minimal values of the gravitational wave amplitude detectable by the instrument versus the frequency of the gravitational wave. This paper describes in detail how to compute such a sensitivity curve given a set of specifications for a spaceborne laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory. Minor errors in the prior literature are corrected, and the first (mostly) analytic calculation of the gravitational wave transfer function is presented. Example sensitivity curve calculations are presented for the proposed LISA interferometer. We find that previous treatments of LISA have underestimated its sensitivity by a factor of 3\sqrt{3}.Comment: 27 pages + 5 figures, REVTeX, accepted for publication in Phys Rev D; Update reflects referees comments, figure 3 clarified, figure 5 corrected for LISA baselin

    A Computational Pipeline for High- Throughput Discovery of cis-Regulatory Noncoding RNA in Prokaryotes

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    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are important functional RNAs that do not code for proteins. We present a highly efficient computational pipeline for discovering cis-regulatory ncRNA motifs de novo. The pipeline differs from previous methods in that it is structure-oriented, does not require a multiple-sequence alignment as input, and is capable of detecting RNA motifs with low sequence conservation. We also integrate RNA motif prediction with RNA homolog search, which improves the quality of the RNA motifs significantly. Here, we report the results of applying this pipeline to Firmicute bacteria. Our top-ranking motifs include most known Firmicute elements found in the RNA family database (Rfam). Comparing our motif models with Rfam's hand-curated motif models, we achieve high accuracy in both membership prediction and base-pair–level secondary structure prediction (at least 75% average sensitivity and specificity on both tasks). Of the ncRNA candidates not in Rfam, we find compelling evidence that some of them are functional, and analyze several potential ribosomal protein leaders in depth

    Superficial femoral popliteal vein: An anatomic study

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    AbstractObjective : The superficial femoral popliteal vein (SFPV) has been used as an alternative conduit for both arterial and venous reconstructive surgery. Its popularity continues to grow, despite concern about the potential for venous morbidity after harvest. The purpose of this study was to determine an anatomic “safe” length of SFPV for harvest, assuming that the preservation of at least one valve and one significant collateral vein in the remaining popliteal vein (PV) segment can minimize venous morbidity. Methods : Forty-four SFPVs were harvested from 39 cadaveric specimens. The length of both the superficial femoral vein (SFV) and PV was measured, and the number and location of valves and significant side branches (more than 2 mm in diameter) of the PV were measured. The Student two-tailed t test was used as a means of comparing vein lengths between the sexes. Correlation coefficients were determined for the effect of patient height on vein length, stratified by means of sex. Results : Vein length (SFV mean, 24.4 ± 4 cm; PV mean, 18.8 ± 4 cm) varied with sex (male SFV mean, 28.1 ± 5 cm; male PV mean, 21.5 ± 3 cm; female SFV mean, 22.6 ± 4 cm; female PV mean, 18.4 ± 3 cm; P =.01). Valve number (mean, 1.8 ± 0.5) and location and collateral vein number (mean, 5 ± 1.8) and location were variable and independent of height or sex. Conclusion : An anatomic “safe” length of SFPV for harvest to minimize venous morbidity would include all the SFV and 12 cm of PV in 95% of women and 15 cm of PV in 95% of men. We found that the male sex was a significant determinant for a longer safe length of vein that can be harvested. (J Vasc Surg 2000;31:450-5.

    Enhanced Stability and Efficiency for Photoelectrochemical Iodide Oxidation by Methyl Termination and Electrochemical Pt Deposition of n-Si Microwire Arrays

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    Arrays of Si microwires doped n-type (n-Si) and surface-functionalized with methyl groups have been used, with or without deposition of Pt electrocatalysts, to photoelectrochemically oxidize I–(aq) to I_3–(aq) in 7.6 M HI(aq). Under conditions of iodide oxidation, methyl-terminated n-Si microwire arrays exhibited stable short-circuit photocurrents over a time scale of days, albeit with low energy-conversion efficiencies. In contrast, electrochemical deposition of Pt onto methyl-terminated n-Si microwire arrays consistently yielded energy-conversion efficiencies of ∼2% for iodide oxidation, with an open-circuit photovoltage of ∼400 mV and a short-circuit photocurrent density of ∼10 mA cm^(–2) under 100 mW cm^(–2) of simulated air mass 1.5G solar illumination. Platinized electrodes were stable for >200 h of continuous operation, with no discernible loss of Si or Pt. Pt deposited using electron-beam evaporation also resulted in stable photoanodic operation of the methyl-terminated n-Si microwire arrays but yielded substantially lower photovoltages than when Pt was deposited electrochemically
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