11 research outputs found

    Integrating simulation into surgical training: a qualitative case study of a national programme

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    Abstract Background Applying simulation-based education (SBE) into surgical curricula is challenging and exacerbated by the absence of guidance on implementation processes. Empirical studies evaluating implementation of SBE interventions focus primarily on outcomes. However, understanding the processes involved in organising, planning, and delivering SBE adds knowledge on how best to develop, implement, and sustain surgical SBE. This study used a reform of early years surgical training to explore the implementation of a new SBE programme in Scotland. It aimed to understand the processes that are involved in the relative success (or failure) when implementing surgical SBE interventions. Methods This qualitative case study, underpinned by social constructionism, used publicly available documents and the relevant surgical SBE literature to inform the research focus and contextualise data obtained from semi-structured interviews with core surgical trainees (n = 46), consultant surgeons (n = 25), and key leaders with roles in surgical training governance in Scotland (n = 7). Initial data coding and analysis were inductive. Secondary data analysis was then undertaken using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT). NPTs’ four constructs (coherence, cognitive participation, collective action, reflexive monitoring) provided an explanatory framework for scrutinising how interventions are implemented, embedded, and integrated into practice, i.e. the “normalisation” process. Results Distributed leadership (individual SBE initiatives assigned to faculty but overall programme overseen by a single leader) and the quality improvement practise of iterative refinement were identified as key novel processes promoting successful normalisation of the new SBE programme. Other processes widely described in the literature were also identified: stakeholder collaboration, personal contacts/relational processes, effective communication, faculty development, effective leadership, and tight programme management. The study also identified that learners valued SBE activities in group- or team-based social environments over isolated deliberate practice. Conclusions SBE is most effective when designed as a comprehensive programme aligned to the curriculum. Programmes incorporating both group-based and isolated SBE activities promote deliberate practice. Distributed leadership amongst faculty attracts wide engagement integral to SBE programme implementation, while iterative programme refinement through regular evaluation and action on feedback encourages integration into practice. The knowledge contributed by critically analysing SBE programme implementation processes can support development of much needed guidance in this area

    Additional file 1 of Integrating simulation into surgical training: a qualitative case study of a national programme

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    Additional file 1: Supplementary Table 1. Illustration of how the coding framework mapped to the four NPT constructs. How the codes, sub-themes, and themes were organised during initial thematic analysis, and how they were mapped to the four NPT constructs following secondary data analysis