351 research outputs found

    The diagnosis of cystic lung diseases: A role for bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biospy?

    Get PDF
    SummaryPulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (PLCH) and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) are two rare cystic lung diseases of unknown aetiology and different pathogenesis. Although the diagnosis can be strongly suspected on the basis of the medical history and clinical and radiological features, at times a pathological confirmation of the diagnosis is necessary. Surgical lung biopsy is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis of both LAM and PLCH. However, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and transbronchial lung biopsy (TBB) are less invasive procedures that can be useful in diagnosis. BAL has a high specificity but low sensitivity for PLCH, and in an appropriate clinical context it can be used to establish the diagnosis. However, even if a high percentage of pigment-laden macrophages are found in the BAL fluid of patients with LAM, no BAL findings are considered suggestive for the disease. TBB shows a low diagnostic yield (10–40%) in PLCH because of the small amount of tissue obtained and the patchy nature of the disease, although it may be of more use in LAM

    Interstitial Lung Disease Associated With Autoimmune Rheumatic Diseases: Checklists for Clinical Practice

    Get PDF
    Background: Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are often associated with rheumatic diseases. Their early diagnosis and management are not only difficult, but also crucial, because they are associated with major morbidity and mortality and can be the first cause of death in autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). Objectives: By using methodologies, such as Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and Delphi Survey, the aims of this study were (1) to measure consensus between pulmonologists, radiologists, and rheumatologists experienced in the management of ARD-ILD; (2) to highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach; and (3) to provide clinicians with a practical tool aimed at improving the prompt recognition and follow-up of ILD associated with ARDs and of any possible rheumatic conditions underlying ILD. Results: During the NGT round, the Steering Committee defined 57 statements to be used in the Delphi survey. A total of 78 experts participated in the Delphi survey, namely 28 pulmonologists, 33 rheumatologists, and 17 radiologists. During this round, consensus on agreement was reached in 47 statements, while disagreement was not reached in any statements. A secondary questionnaire was drafted by the Steering Committee to obtain clearer indications on ILD-ARD \u201cred-flags\u201d and follow-up. Delphi Panelists took part also in the second-questionnaire survey. Answers from both surveys were used to draft two checklists of \u201cred flags\u201d sign or symptom suggestive of ILD and ARD, respectively, and two checklists on identification and monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc) ILD. Limitations: This study is a consensus work, which cannot produce empiric data, and is limited to the Italian scenario. Conclusions: This work showed a high level of agreement, but also shows some divergent opinions between different experts. This underlines the importance of a multidisciplinary approach. Eventually, we believe the drafted checklists can help clinicians in the diagnosis and follow-up of ILD-ARD

    Epidemiological studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: pitfalls in methodologies and data interpretation

    Get PDF
    Data on incidence, prevalence and mortality of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are sparse and vary across studies. The true incidence and prevalence of the disease are unknown. In general, the overall prevalence and incidence reported in European and Asian countries are lower than those reported in American studies. In recent years, the epidemiological approach to IPF has been difficult for many reasons. First, the diagnostic criteria of the disease have changed over time. Secondly, the coding system used for IPF in administrative databases, the most common data source used to study this aspect of the disease, has been modified in the past few years. Finally, the study design, the methodology and the population selected in each of the studies are very different. All these aspects make comparisons among studies very difficult or impossible. In this review, we list the main issues that might arise when comparing different studies and that should be taken into consideration when describing the state of epidemiological knowledge concerning this pathology

    Pulmonary hypertension and chronic lung disease: where are we headed?

    Get PDF
    Pulmonary hypertension related to chronic lung disease, mainly represented by COPD and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, is associated with a worse outcome when compared with patients only affected by parenchymal lung disease. At present, no therapies are available to reverse or slow down the pathological process of this condition and most of the clinical trials conducted to date have had no clinically significant impact. Nevertheless, the importance of chronic lung diseases is always more widely recognised and, along with its increasing incidence, associated pulmonary hypertension is also expected to be growing in frequency and as a health burden worldwide. Therefore, it is desirable to develop useful and reliable tools to obtain an early diagnosis and to monitor and follow-up this condition, while new insights in the therapeutic approach are explored

    Comorbidities in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an underestimated issue

    Get PDF
    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fibrosing lung disease with a poor prognosis. Between 60% and 70% of IPF patients die of IPF; the remaining causes of death may be due to comorbidities occurring in this ageing population. Interest in the role played by comorbidities in IPF has increased in the past few years. The optimal clinical management of IPF is multifaceted and not only involves antifibrotic treatment, but also vaccinations, oxygen supplementation, evaluation of nutritional status as well as psychological support and patient education. Symptom management, pulmonary rehabilitation, palliative care and treatment of comorbidities represent further areas of clinical intervention. This review analyses the major comorbidities observed in IPF, focusing on those that have the greatest impact on mortality and quality of life (QoL). The identification and treatment of comorbidities may help to improve patients' health-related QoL (i.e. sleep apnoea and depression), while some comorbidities (i.e. lung cancer, cardiovascular diseases and pulmonary hypertension) influence survival. It has been outlined that gathering comorbidities data improves the prediction of survival beyond the clinical and physiological parameters of IPF

    Charlson comorbidity index, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and undertreatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors predict in-hospital mortality of hospitalized COVID-19 patients during the omicron dominant period

    Get PDF
    Purpose: To investigate the clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection during the Omicron period. Methods: All consecutive hospitalized laboratory‐confirmed COVID-19 patients between January and May 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent accurate physical, laboratory, radiographic and echocardiographic examination. Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Results: 74 consecutive COVID-19 patients (80.0 ± 12.6 yrs, 45.9% males) were included. Patients who died during hospitalization (27%) and those who were discharged alive (73%) were separately analyzed. Compared to patients discharged alive, those who died were significantly older, with higher comorbidity burden and greater prevalence of laboratory, radiographic and echographic signs of pulmonary and systemic congestion. Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.07-2.92), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.39) and absence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) therapy (OR 0.01, 95%CI 0.00-0.22) independently predicted the primary endpoint. CCI ≥7 and NLR ≥9 were the best cut-off values for predicting mortality. The mortality risk for patients with CCI ≥7, NLR ≥9 and not in ACEI/ARBs therapy was high (86%); for patients with CCI <7, NLR ≥9, with (16.6%) or without (25%) ACEI/ARBs therapy was intermediate; for patients with CCI <7, NLR <9 and in ACEI/ARBs therapy was of 0%. Conclusions: High comorbidity burden, high levels of NLR and the undertreatment with ACEI/ARBs were the main prognostic indicators of in-hospital mortality. The risk stratification of COVID-19 patients at hospital admission would help the clinicians to take care of the high-risk patients and reduce the mortality

    The Octopus Sign-A New HRCT Sign in Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis.

    Get PDF
    Background: Fibrosis in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) histologically comprises a central scar with septal strands and associated airspace enlargement that produce an octopus-like appearance. The purpose of this study was to identify the octopus sign on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images to determine its frequency and distribution across stages of the disease. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with confirmed PLCH were included. Two experienced chest radiologists assessed disease stages as early, intermediate, or late, as well as the lung parenchyma for nodular, cystic, or fibrotic changes and for the presence of the octopus sign. Statistical analysis included Cohen's kappa for interrater agreement and Fisher's exact test for the frequency of the octopus sign. Results: Interobserver agreement was substantial for the octopus sign (kappa = 0.747). Significant differences in distribution of the octopus sign between stages 2 and 3 were found with more frequent octopus signs in stage 2 and fewer in stage 3. In addition, we only found the octopus sign in cases of nodular und cystic lung disease. Conclusions: The octopus sign in PLCH can be identified not only on histological images, but also on HRCT images. Its radiological presence seems to depend on the stage of PLCH

    Pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung disease and hypoxia

    Get PDF
    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently complicates the course of patients with various forms of chronic lung disease (CLD). CLD-associated PH (CLD-PH) is invariably associated with reduced functional ability, impaired quality of life, greater oxygen requirements and an increased risk of mortality. The aetiology of CLD-PH is complex and multifactorial, with differences in the pathogenic sequelae between the diverse forms of CLD. Haemodynamic evaluation of PH severity should be contextualised within the extent of the underlying lung disease, which is best gauged through a combination of physiological and imaging assessment. Who, when, if and how to screen for PH will be addressed in this article, as will the current state of knowledge with regard to the role of treatment with pulmonary vasoactive agents. Although such therapy cannot be endorsed given the current state of findings, future studies in this area are strongly encouraged

    What to expect from the ERS International Congress 2023

    Get PDF
    For the second consecutive year, the European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress will be held in a hybrid format, in Milan, Italy and online, from 9 September to 13 September 2023. This year, the Congress will return to a 5-day programme covering the latest advances in science and clinical practice across the full range of respiratory topics. Thousands of researchers and health professionals will have the opportunity to share their knowledge and work at the world's largest respiratory meeting. In this article, we provide a glimpse of the ERS Congress 2023 including a summary of the Early Career Member (ECM) session, an overview of the Networking EXcellence Training (NEXT) programme, and the “top picks” from the programme selected by the members of the International Congress Programme Committee (ICPC). The full programme is available at: https://www.ersnet.org/congress-and-events/congress/programme/
    corecore