125 research outputs found

    Secondary Amyloidosis Associated with Multiple Sclerosis

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    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Secondary amyloidosis can occur as a complication of chronic systemic inflammatory and infectious diseases. Until now there has been no report of secondary amyloidosis associated with MS. We report herein a case of renal biopsy-proven secondary amyloidosis in a patient with MS. Case Report A 41-year-old woman with MS was hospitalized due to aggravated quadriparesis and edema in both lower extremities. Laboratory findings showed nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. A percutaneous renal biopsy procedure was performed, the results of which revealed secondary amyloid-A-type amyloidosis associated with MS. Conclusions This is the first report of secondary amyloidosis associated with MS. J Clin Neurol 2009;5:146-14

    Second Serial Transverse Enteroplasty Procedure in an Infant with Extreme Short Bowel Syndrome

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    The serial transverse enteroplasty (STEP) procedure is a novel technique to lengthen and taper the bowel in patients with short bowel syndrome. The advantages of STEP include not only technical ease and simplicity, but also the ability to repeat the procedure. Herein, we report a case of extreme short bowel syndrome that was successfully treated by the second STEP procedure. A 3-day old newborn girl underwent STEP because of jejunal atresia with the small bowel length of 15 cm, but her bowel elongation was not enough to escape from short bowel syndrome. At the age of 6 months, she underwent a second STEP procedure. The bowel lengthening by the second STEP made her tolerable to enteral feeding with body weight gain and rescued her from short bowel syndrome. This case showed that second STEP is very helpful in treatment of extreme short bowel syndrome

    Fasting glucose variability and risk of dementia in Parkinson’s disease: a 9-year longitudinal follow-up study of a nationwide cohort

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    BackgroundDiabetes is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD); however, it is unknown whether this association is dependent on continuous hyperglycemia, hypoglycemic events, or glycemic variability. We aimed to investigate the relationship between visit-to-visit fasting glucose variability and PDD development in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).MethodsUsing data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service, we examined 9,264 patients aged ≥40 years with de novo Parkinson’s disease (PD) who underwent ≥3 health examinations and were followed up until December 2019. Glucose variability was measured using the coefficient of variation, variability independent of the mean, and average real variability. Fine and Gray competing regression analysis was performed to determine the effect of glucose variability on incident PDD.ResultsDuring the 9.5-year follow-up period, 1,757 of 9,264 (19.0%) patients developed PDD. Patients with a higher visit-to-visit glucose variability had a higher risk of future PDD. In the multivariable adjusted model, patients with PD in the highest quartile (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] = 1.50, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.88), quartile 3 (SHR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.62), and quartile 2 (SHR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.63) were independently associated with a higher risk of PDD than those in the lowest quartile.ConclusionWe highlighted the effect of long-term glucose variability on the development of PDD in patients with PD. Furthermore, our findings suggest that preventive measures for constant glucose control may be necessary to prevent PDD

    A questionnaire survey on the diagnosis and treatment of Fabry nephropathy in clinical practice

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    Background Fabry nephropathy is characterized by a deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A, which results in proteinuria and kidney disease. The ineffectiveness of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for severe kidney failure highlights the need for early detection and meaningful markers. However, because the diagnosis and treatment of Fabry disease can vary according to the expertise of physicians, we evaluated the opinions of Korean specialists. Methods A questionnaire regarding the management of Fabry nephropathy was emailed to healthcare providers with the experience or ability to treat individuals with Fabry nephropathy. Results Of the 70 experts who responded to the survey, 43 were nephrologists, and 64.3% of the respondents reported having treated patients with Fabry disease. Pediatricians are treating primarily patients with classic types of the disease, while nephrologists and cardiologists are treating more patients with variant types. Only 40.7% of non-nephrologists agreed that a kidney biopsy was required at the time of diagnosis, compared with 81.4% of nephrologists. Thirty-eight of 70 respondents (54.3%) reported measuring globotriaosylsphingosine (lyso-Gb3) as a biomarker. The most common period to measure lyso-Gb3 was at the time of diagnosis, followed by after ERT, before ERT, and at screening. For the stage at which ERT should begin, microalbuminuria and proteinuria were chosen by 51.8% and 28.6% of respondents, respectively. Conclusion Nephrologists are more likely to treat variant Fabry disease rather than classic cases, and they agree that ERT should be initiated early in Fabry nephropathy, using lyso-Gb3 as a biomarker

    A Case of Osteoclast-like Giant Cell Tumor of the Pancreas with Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Histopathological, Immunohistochemical, Ultrastructural and Molecular Biological Studies

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    Osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the pancreas is a very rare neoplasm, of which the histiogenesis remains controversial. A 63-yr-old woman was hospitalized for evaluation of epigastric pain. An abdominal computerized tomography revealed the presence of a large cystic mass, arising from the tail of pancreas. A distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of mononuclear stromal cells intermingled with osteclast-like giant cells. In addition, there was a small area of moderately to well differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma. The final pathologic diagnosis was osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the pancreas with ductal adenocarcinoma. Here, we describe the histopathological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular biological findings of this tumor with review of the literature pertaining to this condition

    The genome sequence of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae KACC10331, the bacterial blight pathogen of rice

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    The nucleotide sequence was determined for the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) KACC10331, a bacterium that causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The genome is comprised of a single, 4 941 439 bp, circular chromosome that is G + C rich (63.7%). The genome includes 4637 open reading frames (ORFs) of which 3340 (72.0%) could be assigned putative function. Orthologs for 80% of the predicted Xoo genes were found in the previously reported X.axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and X.campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genomes, but 245 genes apparently specific to Xoo were identified. Xoo genes likely to be associated with pathogenesis include eight with similarity to Xanthomonas avirulence (avr) genes, a set of hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity (hrp) genes, genes for exopolysaccharide production, and genes encoding extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The presence of these genes provides insights into the interactions of this pathogen with its gramineous host

    Three-Dimensional Human Alveolar Stem Cell Culture Models Reveal Infection Response to SARS-CoV-2.

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    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the cause of a present pandemic, infects human lung alveolar type 2 (hAT2) cells. Characterizing pathogenesis is crucial for developing vaccines and therapeutics. However, the lack of models mirroring the cellular physiology and pathology of hAT2 cells limits the study. Here, we develop a feeder-free, long-term, three-dimensional (3D) culture technique for hAT2 cells derived from primary human lung tissue and investigate infection response to SARS-CoV-2. By imaging-based analysis and single-cell transcriptome profiling, we reveal rapid viral replication and the increased expression of interferon-associated genes and proinflammatory genes in infected hAT2 cells, indicating a robust endogenous innate immune response. Further tracing of viral mutations acquired during transmission identifies full infection of individual cells effectively from a single viral entry. Our study provides deep insights into the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and the application of defined 3D hAT2 cultures as models for respiratory diseases

    Zollinger-Ellison syndrome associated with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report

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    BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder with characteristic features of skin and central nervous system involvement. Gastrointestinal involvement is rare, but the risk of malignancy development is considerable. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is caused by gastrin-secreting tumors called gastrinomas. Correct diagnosis is often difficult, and curative treatment can only be achieved surgically. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old female affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with a history of recurrent epigastric soreness, diarrhea, and relapsing chronic duodenal ulcer. Her serum fasting gastrin level was over 1000 pg/mL. An abdominal CT scan revealed a 3 × 2-cm, well-enhanced mass adjacent to the duodenal loop. She was not associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Operative resection was performed and gastrinoma was diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining. The serum gastrin level decreased to 99.1 pg/mL after surgery, and symptoms and endoscopic findings completely resolved without recurrences. CONCLUSION: Gastrinoma is difficult to detect even in the general population, and hence symptoms such as recurrent idiopathic peptic ulcer and diarrhea in neurofibromatosis type 1 patients should be accounted for as possibly contributing to Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

    Clinical features and outcomes of gastric variceal bleeding: retrospective Korean multicenter data

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    Background/AimsWhile gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is not as prevalent as esophageal variceal bleeding, it is reportedly more serious, with high failure rates of the initial hemostasis (>30%), and has a worse prognosis than esophageal variceal bleeding. However, there is limited information regarding hemostasis and the prognosis for GVB. The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the clinical outcomes of GVB in a multicenter study in Korea.MethodsThe data of 1,308 episodes of GVB (males:females=1062:246, age=55.0±11.0 years, mean±SD) were collected from 24 referral hospital centers in South Korea between March 2003 and December 2008. The rates of initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality within 5 days and 6 weeks of the index bleed were evaluated.ResultsThe initial hemostasis failed in 6.1% of the patients, and this was associated with the Child-Pugh score [odds ratio (OR)=1.619; P<0.001] and the treatment modality: endoscopic variceal ligation, endoscopic variceal obturation, and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration vs. endoscopic sclerotherapy, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, and balloon tamponade (OR=0.221, P<0.001). Rebleeding developed in 11.5% of the patients, and was significantly associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.159, P<0.001) and treatment modality (OR=0.619, P=0.026). The GVB-associated mortality was 10.3%; mortality in these cases was associated with Child-Pugh score (OR=1.795, P<0.001) and the treatment modality for the initial hemostasis (OR=0.467, P=0.001).ConclusionsThe clinical outcome for GVB was better for the present cohort than in previous reports. Initial hemostasis failure, rebleeding, and mortality due to GVB were universally associated with the severity of liver cirrhosis
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