35,061 research outputs found

    Nucleotide-, chemotactic peptide- and phorbol ester-induced exocytosis in HL-60 leukemic cells

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    Undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 leukemic cells possess nucleotide receptors which functionally couple to phospholipase C via pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins). We investigated the role of extracellular nucleotides in the regulation of beta-glucuronidase release in HL-60 cells. In dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt2cAMP)-differentiated HL-60 cells, the chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe), the phosphorothioate analogue of ATP, adenosine 5'-O-[3-thio]triphosphate (ATP[gamma S]), and UTP increased cytosolic Ca2+ from 100 nM up to 1.2 microM with EC50 values of 4 nM, 1 microM and 100 nM, respectively. In these cells, ATP[gamma S] induced exocytosis with an EC50 of 4 microM and an effectiveness amounting to 50-70% of that of fMet-Leu-Phe. ATP, ITP, UTP, CTP, and uridine 5'-O-[2-thio]diphosphate activated exocytosis as well. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) induced exocytosis with an EC50 of 115 ng/ml and an effectiveness similar to that of ATP[gamma S]. Cytochalasin B (CB) differently potentiated exocytosis induced by ATP[gamma S], fMet-Leu-Phe and PMA. Treatment of Bt2cAMP-differentiated HL-60 cells with pertussis toxin (500 ng/ml) for 24 h resulted in ADP-ribosylation of more than 97.5% of the G-proteins. Under these conditions, pertussis toxin almost completely inhibited the increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and beta-glucuronidase release induced by fMet-Leu-Phe but only partially inhibited the effects of ATP[gamma S] and UTP. fMet-Leu-Phe at a non-stimulatory concentration (1 nM) potentiated ATP[gamma S]-induced beta-glucuronidase release in the presence but not in the absence of CB. In contrast, ATP[gamma S] and fMet-Leu-Phe synergistically activated superoxide formation in the absence of CB. PMA potentiated superoxide formation induced by ATP[gamma S] or fMet-Leu-Phe and did not affect exocytosis induced by ATP[gamma S] or fMet-Leu-Phe. In undifferentiated HL-60 cells, fMet-Leu-Phe, ATP[gamma S], UTP and PMA did not induce beta-glucuronidase release. fMet-Leu-Phe did not increase cytosolic Ca2+ in undifferentiated HL-60 cells, whereas ATP[gamma S] and UTP were similarly potent and effective as in Bt2cAMP-differentiated cells. In differentiated HL-60 cells, fMet-Leu-Phe induced aggregation, and ATP[gamma S] induced a transient shape change. Our results show (I) that exocytosis in HL-60 cells does not obligatorily depend on CB. (II) Purine and pyrimidine nucleotides activate exocytosis via pertussis toxin-sensitive and -insensitive signal transduction pathways.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS

    Structures, targets and recent approaches in anti-leishmanial drug discovery and development.

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    Recent years have seen a significant improvement in available treatment options for leishmaniasis. Two new drugs, miltefosine and paromomycin, have been registered for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India since 2002. Combination therapy is now explored in clinical trials as a new treatment approach for VL to reduce the length of treatment and potentially prevent selection of resistant parasites. However there is still a need for new drugs due to safety, resistance, stability and cost issues with existing therapies. The search for topical treatments for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is ongoing. This review gives a brief overview of recent developments and approaches in anti-leishmanial drug discovery and development

    (Thankful) and Having the Time of My Life

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    Postcard from Meghan Seifert, during the Linfield College Semester Abroad Program at the American University Center of Provence in Aix-en-Provence, Franc

    A quantitative version of Gordon's Theorem for Jacobi and Sturm-Liouville operators

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    We prove a quantitative version of Gordon's Theorem concerning absence of eigenvalues for Jacobi matrices and Sturm-Liouville operators with complex coefficients.Comment: 22 page

    A quantified Tauberian theorem for sequences

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    The main result of this paper is a quantified version of Ingham's Tauberian theorem for bounded vector-valued sequences rather than functions. It gives an estimate on the rate of decay of such a sequence in terms of the behaviour of a certain boundary function, with the quality of the estimate depending on the degree of smoothness this boundary function is assumed to possess. The result is then used to give a new proof of the quantified Katznelson-Tzafriri theorem recently obtained in [21]