4,747 research outputs found

    A positive side effect of wearing face coverings for socially anxious females: Findings from a speech task

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    Background: Wearing face masks has become more common due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Until now, it has not been investigated whether socially anxious individuals can reduce their acute anxiety symptoms by wearing face masks during a speech task. Method: Fifty-nine socially anxious females were asked to prepare and give an oral presentation. Participants were randomly allocated either to a group that was asked to wear a face mask during the task, or to a group that was not asked to wear a face mask during the task. Dependent variables included physiological parameters (systolic/diastolic blood pressure, heart rate) and self-reports (valence and arousal at baseline, as well as directly before and after the presentation). Results: The analyses showed that the group without face masks had a higher systolic blood pressure than the group with face masks, directly before as well as after the presentation. The two groups did not differ in the other measures. Conclusion: Wearing face masks has a small stress-reducing effect on socially anxious females

    Mitochondrial Transfer by Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Ameliorates Hepatocyte Lipid Load in a Mouse Model of NASH

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    Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation ameliorated hepatic lipid load; tissue inflammation; and fibrosis in rodent animal models of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by as yet largely unknown mechanism(s). In a mouse model of NASH; we transplanted bone marrow-derived MSCs into the livers; which were analyzed one week thereafter. Combined metabolomic and proteomic data were applied to weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and subsequent identification of key drivers. Livers were analyzed histologically and biochemically. The mechanisms of MSC action on hepatocyte lipid accumulation were studied in co-cultures of hepatocytes and MSCs by quantitative image analysis and immunocytochemistry. WGCNA and key driver analysis revealed that NASH caused the impairment of central carbon; amino acid; and lipid metabolism associated with mitochondrial and peroxisomal dysfunction; which was reversed by MSC treatment. MSC improved hepatic lipid metabolism and tissue homeostasis. In co-cultures of hepatocytes and MSCs; the decrease of lipid load was associated with the transfer of mitochondria from the MSCs to the hepatocytes via tunneling nanotubes (TNTs). Hence; MSCs may ameliorate lipid load and tissue perturbance by the donation of mitochondria to the hepatocytes. Thereby; they may provide oxidative capacity for lipid breakdown and thus promote recovery from NASH-induced metabolic impairment and tissue injury

    Quantitative Phase Imaging with a Metalens

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    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) recovers the exact wavefront of light from the intensity measured by a camera. Topographical maps of translucent microscopic bodies can be extracted from these quantified phase shifts. We demonstrate quantitative phase imaging at the tip of an optical fiber endoscope with a chromatic silicon nitride metalens. Our method leverages spectral multiplexing to recover phase from multiple defocus planes in a single capture. The half millimeter wide metalens shows phase imaging capability with a 280 field of view and 0.1{\lambda} sensitivity in experiments with an endoscopic fiber bundle. Since the spectral functionality is encoded directly in the imaging lens, no additional filters are needed. Key limitations in the scaling of a phase imaging system, such as multiple acquisition, interferometric alignment or mechanical scanning are completely mitigated in the proposed schem

    Vorhersagbarkeit von Makulaforamina nach Katarakt-OP bei Vitreomakulärer Traktion

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    Essays in industrial organization and competition policy

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    Fast boundary element methods for the simulation of wave phenomena

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    This thesis is concerned with the efficient implementation of boundary element methods (BEM) for their application in wave problems. BEM present a particularly useful tool, since they reduce the dimension of the problems by one, resulting in much fewer unknowns. However, this comes at the cost of dense system matrices, whose entries require the integration of singular kernel functions over pairs of boundary elements. Because calculating these four-dimensional integrals by cubature rules is expensive, a novel approach based on singularity cancellation and analytical integration is proposed. In this way, the dimension of the integrals is reduced and closed formulae are obtained for the most challenging cases. This allows for the accurate calculation of the matrix entries while requiring less computational work compared with conventional numerical integration. Furthermore, a new algorithm based on hierarchical low-rank approximation is presented, which compresses the dense matrices and improves the complexity of the method. The idea is to collect the matrices corresponding to different time steps in a third-order tensor and to approximate individual sub-blocks by a combination of analytic and algebraic low-rank techniques. By exploiting the low-rank structure in several ways, the method scales almost linearly in the number of spatial degrees of freedom and number of time steps. The superior performance of the new method is demonstrated in numerical examples.Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der effizienten Implementierung von Randelementmethoden (REM) für ihre Anwendung auf Wellenprobleme. REM stellen ein besonders nützliches Werkzeug dar, da sie die Dimension der Probleme um eins reduzieren, was zu weit weniger Unbekannten führt. Allerdings ist dies mit vollbesetzten Matrizen verbunden, deren Einträge die Integration singulärer Kernfunktionen über Paare von Randelementen erfordern. Da die Berechnung dieser vierdimensionalen Integrale durch Kubaturformeln aufwendig ist, wird ein neuer Ansatz basierend auf Regularisierung und analytischer Integration verfolgt. Auf diese Weise reduziert sich die Dimension der Integrale und es ergeben sich geschlossene Formeln für die schwierigsten Fälle. Dies ermöglicht die genaue Berechnung der Matrixeinträge mit geringerem Rechenaufwand als konventionelle numerische Integration. Außerdem wird ein neuer Algorithmus beruhend auf hierarchischer Niedrigrangapproximation präsentiert, der die Matrizen komprimiert und die Komplexität der Methode verbessert. Die Idee ist, die Matrizen der verschiedenen Zeitpunkte in einem Tensor dritter Ordnung zu sammeln und einzelne Teilblöcke durch eine Kombination von analytischen und algebraischen Niedrigrangverfahren zu approximieren. Durch Ausnutzung der Niedrigrangstruktur skaliert die Methode fast linear mit der Anzahl der räumlichen Freiheitsgrade und der Anzahl der Zeitschritte. Die überlegene Leistung der neuen Methode wird anhand numerischer Beispiele aufgezeigt

    Spätverlauf nach Frühgeborenenretinopathie (ROP)

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    Quantitative Phase Imaging with a Metalens

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    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) recovers the exact wavefront of light from the intensity measured by a camera. Topographical maps of translucent microscopic bodies can be extracted from these quantified phase shifts. We demonstrate quantitative phase imaging at the tip of an optical fiber endoscope with a chromatic silicon nitride metalens. Our method leverages spectral multiplexing to recover phase from multiple defocus planes in a single capture. The half millimeter wide metalens shows phase imaging capability with a 280 field of view and 0.1{\lambda} sensitivity in experiments with an endoscopic fiber bundle. Since the spectral functionality is encoded directly in the imaging lens, no additional filters are needed. Key limitations in the scaling of a phase imaging system, such as multiple acquisition, interferometric alignment or mechanical scanning are completely mitigated in the proposed schem

    Lung Ultrasound in Predicting Outcomes in Patients with COVID-19 Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

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    Pulmonary involvement due to SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19. Consequently, pulmonary imaging is crucial for management of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of lung ultrasound (LUS) with a handheld ultrasound device (HHUD) in patients with COVID-19 treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Therefore, patients underwent LUS with a HHUD every two days until they were either discharged from the intensive care unit or died. The study was conducted at the University Hospital of Bonn’s anesthesiological intensive care ward from December 2020 to August 2021. A total of 33 patients (median [IQR]: 56.0 [53–60.5] years) were included. A high LUS score was associated with a decreased P/F ratio (repeated measures correlation [rmcorr]: −0.26; 95% CI: −0.34, −0.15; p p = 0.030), deteriorated electrolyte status (base excess: rmcorr: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.24; p = 0.004; pH: rmcorr: 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21; p = 0.001), and decreased pulmonary compliance (rmcorr: −0.10; 95% CI: −0.20, −0.01; p = 0.034). The maximum LUS score was lower in survivors (median difference [md]: −0.35; 95% CI: −0.55, −0.06; p = 0.006). A cutoff value for non-survival was calculated at a LUS score of 2.63. At the time of maximum LUS score, P/F ratio (md: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.76; p p = 0.018) were higher in surviving patients. In conclusion, LUS with a HHUD enables continuous evaluation of cardiopulmonary function in COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO support therapy and provides prognostic value in determining the patients’ likelihood of survival
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