14 research outputs found

    Molecular genetics and phenotypic assessment of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) landraces revealed remarkable variability of morpho-physiological, yield, and yieldÔÇÉrelated traits

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    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is highly valued for nutritional traits, stress tolerance and sustainability in resource-poor dryland agriculture. However, the low productivity of this crop in semi-arid regions of Southern India, is further threatened by climate stress. Landraces are valuable genetic resources, regionally adapted in form of novel alleles that are responsible for cope up the adverse conditions used by local farmers. In recent years, there is an erosion of genetic diversity. We have hypothesized that plant genetic resources collected from the semi-arid climatic zone would serve as a source of novel alleles for the development of climate resilience foxtail millet lines with enhanced yield. Keeping in view, there is an urgent need for conservation of genetic resources. To explore the genetic diversity, to identify superior genotypes and novel alleles, we collected a heterogeneous mixture of foxtail millet landraces from farmer fields. In an extensive multi-year study, we developed twenty genetically fixed foxtail millet landraces by single seed descent method. These landraces characterized along with four released cultivars with agro-morphological, physiological, yield and yield-related traits assessed genetic diversity and population structure. The landraces showed significant diversity in all the studied traits. We identified landraces S3G5, Red, Black and S1C1 that showed outstanding grain yield with earlier flowering, and maturity as compared to released cultivars. Diversity analysis using 67 simple sequence repeat microsatellite and other markers detected 127 alleles including 11 rare alleles, averaging 1.89 alleles per locus, expected heterozygosity of 0.26 and an average polymorphism information content of 0.23, collectively indicating a moderate genetic diversity in the landrace populations. Euclidean WardÔÇÖs clustering, based on the molecular markers, principal coordinate analysis and structure analysis concordantly distinguished the genotypes into two to three sub-populations. A significant phenotypic and genotypic diversity observed in the landraces indicates a diverse gene pool that can be utilized for sustainable foxtail millet crop improvement

    Farkl─▒ evrimsel basamaklarda yer alan bitki s─▒n─▒flar─▒nda gamma aminob├╝tirik asidin (GABA) ├že┼čitli ├Âzelliklerinin incelenmesi

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    GABA (gamma aminob├╝tirik asit) proteinlerin yap─▒s─▒na kat─▒lmayan bir amino asit olup t├╝m prokaryotik ve ├Âkaryotik organizmalarda bulunmaktad─▒r (Shelp et al., 1999; Kinnersley and Turano, 2000). GABA, fizyolojisi ├žok iyi belirlenmi┼č Arabidopsis, t├╝t├╝n ve domates gibi bitkilerde ara┼čt─▒r─▒lm─▒┼č olmas─▒na ra─čmen bitki s─▒n─▒flar─▒nda evrimsel bir kar┼č─▒la┼čt─▒rmas─▒ yap─▒lmam─▒┼čt─▒r. ├çal─▒┼čmam─▒zda do─čadan toplanan farkl─▒ bitki cinslerinde, bir alg ve liken cinsinde GABA (gamma aminob├╝tirik asit) yolunda yer alan iki enzimin aktiviteleri ve GABA miktar─▒ belirlenmi┼čtir. Elde edilen veriler do─črultusunda farkl─▒ bitki t├╝rleri, bir alg ve liken cinsi GABA ├Âzelliklerine g├Âre kar┼č─▒la┼čt─▒r─▒lm─▒┼čt─▒r

    Gamma-amino butyric acid, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate decarboxylase levels in phylogenetically divergent plants

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    WOS: 000313801600010Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is a nonprotein amino acid found in a wide range of organisms including plants. Several studies have shown that GABA plays different roles in plant metabolism including carbon-nitrogen metabolism, energy balance, signaling and development. It has been suggested that the occurrence of GABA and the enzymes related to GABA biosynthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes may be important in evolution and diversification. However, studies of GABA biosynthesis and GABA levels in an evolutionary context are restricted to sequenced plant genomes. In this study we aimed to compare the activities of GDH and GAD enzymes and total nitrogen, and the contents of total soluble protein, succinate, glutamate, proline and GABA in plants from different phylogenetic levels including Ulva lactuca, Pseudevernia furfuracea, Nephrolepsis exaltata, Ginkgo biloba, Pinus pinea, Magnolia grandiflora, Nymphaea alba, Urtica dioica, Portulaca oleraceae, Malva sylvestris, Rosa canina, Lavandula stoechas, Washingtonia filifera, Avena barbata and Iris kaempferi. The activities of GAD and GDH enzymes differed according to the species and were not always parallel to GABA levels. The discrepancy in the contents of succinate and GABA between higher and primitive plants was also prominent. Glutamate levels were high with a few exceptions and proline contents were at similar low values as compared to other amino acids. Our results support the hypothesis that the GABA shunt plays a key role in carbon and nitrogen partitioning via linking amino acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle which is essential for higher plant species.Ege University Research FoundationEge University [2009-FEN-020]The authors would like to thank Ege University Research Foundation for supporting this work (Grant Number 2009-FEN-020)

    Salt and drought stress-mitigating approaches in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) to improve its performance and yield

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    Main conclusion: Although sugar beet is a salt- and drought-tolerant crop, high salinity, and water deprivation significantly reduce its yield and growth. Several reports have demonstrated stress tolerance enhancement through stress-mitigating strategies including the exogenous application of osmolytes or metabolites, nanoparticles, seed treatments, breeding salt/drought-tolerant varieties. These approaches would assist in achieving sustainable yields despite global climatic changes. Abstract: Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an economically vital crop for ~ 30% of world sugar production. They also provide essential raw materials for bioethanol, animal fodder, pulp, pectin, and functional food-related industries. Due to fewer irrigation water requirements and shorter regeneration time than sugarcane, beet cultivation is spreading to subtropical climates from temperate climates. However, beet varieties from different geographical locations display different stress tolerance levels. Although sugar beet can endure moderate exposure to various abiotic stresses, including high salinity and drought, prolonged exposure to salt and drought stress causes a significant decrease in crop yield and production. Hence, plant biologists and agronomists have devised several strategies to mitigate the stress-induced damage to sugar beet cultivation. Recently, several studies substantiated that the exogenous application of osmolytes or metabolite substances can help plants overcome injuries induced by salt or drought stress. Furthermore, these compounds likely elicit different physio-biochemical impacts, including improving nutrient/ionic homeostasis, photosynthetic efficiency, strengthening defense response, and water status improvement under various abiotic stress conditions. In the current review, we compiled different stress-mitigating agricultural strategies, prospects, and future experiments that can secure sustainable yields for sugar beets despite high saline or drought conditions

    Beyond the genetic code in leaf senescence

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    Leaf senescence is not only genetically programmed but also induced by exogenous stress to ensure completion of the plant life cycle, successful reproduction and environmental adaptability. Genetic reprogramming is a major aspect of leaf senescence, and the senescence signaling that follows is controlled by a complex regulatory network. Recent studies suggest that the activity of transcription factors together with epigenetic mechanisms ensures the robustness of this network, with the latter including chromatin remodeling, DNA modification, and RNA-mediated control of transcription factors and other senescence-associated genes. In this review, we provide an overview of the relevant epigenetic mechanisms and summarize recent findings of epigenetic regulators of plant leaf senescence involved in DNA methylation and histone modification along with the functions of small RNAs in this process ┬ę The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.1

    Day and Night Fluctuations in GABA Biosynthesis Contribute to Drought Responses in Nicotiana tabacum L

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    When synchronized with the light/dark cycle the circadian rhythm is termed a diurnal rhythm and this organizes an organism's daily life cycle in relation to the metabolic shifts during the day/night cycles. This is a complex task, particularly under stress conditions. Accurate maintenance of the diurnal rhythm becomes an issue under environmental extremes, such as drought due to the impairment of metabolism, redox balance, and structural integrity. In plants, the non-proteinogenic amino acid GABA accumulates to high levels in response to several stress factors but this is not always dependent on the activation of its biosynthesis. Here we propose a regulatory role to GABA during the diurnal rhythm in plants which is similar to its function in animals where it adjusts the circadian rhythm. Here we investigated whether GABA-biosynthesis was affected by drought stress during the diurnal cycle. For this, we took samples from leaves of N. tabacum plants subjected to PEG-mediated drought stress (-0.73 MPa) during the day and night cycle during a 24 hour period. Glutamate, GABA, and proline contents, along with GDH, GAD enzyme activities and transcript profiles were analyzed. Overall, we conclude that the oscillations in GABA biosynthesis during day and night cycle have an impact on drought stress responses which needs to be elucidated by further analysis.The authors thank to Prof. Steven Footitt for his critical reading and helpful contributions to the manuscript. This work was supported by grant-in-aid 14-FEN-045 from Ege University Research Foundation.Ege University Research Foundation [14-FEN-045

    Salt and drought stress responses in cultivated beets (Beta vulgaris L.) and wild beet (Beta maritima L.)

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    Cultivated beets, including leaf beets, garden beets, fodder beets, and sugar beets, which belong to the species Beta vulgaris L., are economically important edible crops that have been originated from a halophytic wild ancestor, Beta maritima L. (sea beet or wild beet). Salt and drought are major abiotic stresses, which limit crop growth and production and have been most studied in beets compared to other environmental stresses. Characteristically, beets are salt- and drought-tolerant crops; however, prolonged and persistent exposure to salt and drought stress results in a significant drop in beet productivity and yield. Hence, to harness the best benefits of beet cultivation, knowledge of stress-coping strategies, and stress-tolerant beet varieties, are prerequisites. In the current review, we have summarized morpho-physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of sugar beet, fodder beet, red beet, chard (B. vulgaris L.), and their ancestor, wild beet (B. maritima L.) under salt and drought stresses. We have also described the beet genes and noncoding RNAs previously reported for their roles in salt and drought response/tolerance. The plant biologists and breeders can potentiate the utilization of these resources as prospective targets for developing crops with abiotic stress tolerance

    Characteristic of the Ascorbate Oxidase Gene Family in Beta vulgaris and Analysis of the Role of AAO in Response to Salinity and Drought in Beet

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    Ascorbate oxidase, which is known to play a key role in regulating the redox state in the apoplast, cell wall metabolism, cell expansion and abiotic stress response in plants, oxidizes apo-plastic ascorbic acid (AA) to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA). However, there is little information about the AAO genes and their functions in beets under abiotic stress. The term salt or drought stress refers to the treatment of plants with slow and gradual salinity/drought. Contrastingly, salt shock consists of exposing plants to high salt levels instantaneously and drought shock occurs under fast drought progression. In the present work, we have subjected plants to salinity or drought treatments to elicit either stress or shock and carried out a genome-wide analysis of ascorbate oxidase (AAO) genes in sugar beet (B. vulgaris cv. Huzar) and its halophytic ancestor (B. maritima). Here, conserved domain analyses showed the existence of twelve BvAAO gene family members in the genome of sugar beet. The BvAAO_1–12 genes are located on chromosomes 4, 5, 6, 8 and 9. The phylogenetic tree exhibited the close relationships between BvAAO_1-12 and AAO genes of Spinacia oleracea and Chenopodium quinoa. In both beet genotypes, downregulation of AAO gene expression with the duration of salt stress or drought treatment was observed. This correlated with a decrease in AAO enzyme activity under defined experimental setup. Under salinity, the key downregulated gene was BvAAO_10 in Beta maritima and under drought the BvAAO_3 gene in both beets. This phenomenon may be involved in determining the high tolerance of beet to salinity and drought