1,413 research outputs found

    Modeling and removal of optical ghosts in the PROBA-3/ASPIICS externally occulted solar coronagraph

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    Context: ASPIICS is a novel externally occulted solar coronagraph, which will be launched onboard the PROBA-3 mission of the European Space Agency. The external occulter will be placed on the first satellite approximately 150 m ahead of the second satellite that will carry an optical instrument. During 6 hours per orbit, the satellites will fly in a precise formation, constituting a giant externally occulted coronagraph. Large distance between the external occulter and the primary objective will allow observations of the white-light solar corona starting from extremely low heights 1.1RSun. Aims: To analyze influence of optical ghost images formed inside the telescope and develop an algorithm for their removal. Methods: We implement the optical layout of ASPIICS in Zemax and study the ghost behaviour in sequential and non-sequential regimes. We identify sources of the ghost contributions and analyze their geometrical behaviour. Finally we develop a mathematical model and software to calculate ghost images for any given input image. Results: We show that ghost light can be important in the outer part of the field of view, where the coronal signal is weak, since the energy of bright inner corona is redistributed to the outer corona. However the model allows to remove the ghost contribution. Due to a large distance between the external occulter and the primary objective, the primary objective does not produce a significant ghost. The use of the Lyot spot in ASPIICS is not necessary.Comment: 14 pages, 13 figure

    Predicting adsorption of water/organic mixtures using molecular simulation

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    The use of Monte Carlo simulation to predict the adsorption of mixtures of polar and nonpolar species on activated carbon was investigated using water and ethane on BPL carbon as a prototype system. The structure of the adsorbent was modeled by an array of slit-shaped pores, characterized by a pore-size distribution. The chemical heterogeneity of the carbon was taken into account by including oxygen-containing sites on the surface of the pores. The pore-size distribution was obtained from pure-ethane adsorption on the same carbon sample, while the concentration and distribution of surface sites were determined by analyzing pure-water adsorption. Model predictions agree well with experimental multicomponent data

    Characterisation of the surface chemistry of activated carbon by molecular simulation of water adsorption

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    We propose a model for activated carbon incorporating both structural and chemical heterogeneity. Structural heterogeneity is represented by an array of slit-shaped pores, characterised by a pore size distribution. This distribution was calculated from experimental data on pure-component adsorption of ethane, using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations to describe adsorption at the individual pore level. Chemical heterogeneity is represented in our model by including oxygen-containing surface sites. The results from molecular simulation in the model carbon are compared to the experimental pure-water adsorption isotherm on the same sample. From such a comparison, one is able to draw conclusions regarding the, concentration and distribution of surface sites in pores of different, width

    Molecular simulation of phase coexistence in adsorption in porous solids

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    In this work a recently proposed method, the gauge-cell Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo, is extended to deal with polar substances. The behaviour of water, a hydrogen bonding, weakly adsorbing fluid, is compared with that of methane, a strongly adsorbing, non-polar fluid, in the vicinity of the phase transition. The mechanisms of condensation for the two species are seen to be significantly different in nature. A systematic study of the effect of the pore width on the phase equilibrium of water is also performed. Our results show that the narrowing of the pore shifts the equilibrium transition pressure to lower values and reduces the extent of vapour metastability, but exerts little influence on the stability of the liquid phase

    Simulation study of the effect of the chemical heterogeneity of activated carbon on water adsorption

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    In this paper we present results from the molecular simulation of water adsorption in slit-shaped activated carbon pores. We calculate adsorption isotherms by grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation, Henry's constants by Monte Carlo integration, and vapor-liquid equilibrium data by the gauge-cell Monte Carlo method, to investigate the chemical heterogeneity of activated carbon adsorbents. Several types of polar oxygen-containing sites are placed on the surface of the carbon with different densities and local distributions, in order to determine the individual effects of each of these factors on the adsorption of water. Our results confirm the role of surface sites in the enhancement of water adsorption, Furthermore, we show that the local distribution of these sites has a strong effect on low-pressure adsorption, while the overall site density affects mainly the vapor-liquid phase transition. The type of oxygen-containing group is shown not to be of critical importance, since more complex groups can effectively be represented by simpler sites. This study forms the basis for the development of a model for activated carbon that is able to represent the chemical heterogeneity of this type of material

    Precise Coulomb wave functions for a wide range of complex l, eta and z

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    A new algorithm to calculate Coulomb wave functions with all of its arguments complex is proposed. For that purpose, standard methods such as continued fractions and power/asymptotic series are combined with direct integrations of the Schrodinger equation in order to provide very stable calculations, even for large values of |eta| or |Im(l)|. Moreover, a simple analytic continuation for Re(z) < 0 is introduced, so that this zone of the complex z-plane does not pose any problem. This code is particularly well suited for low-energy calculations and the calculation of resonances with extremely small widths. Numerical instabilities appear, however, when both |eta| and |Im(l)| are large and |Re(l)| comparable or smaller than |Im(l)|

    Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficients and Photoionization Cross Sections for Astrophysically Abundant Elements VI. Ni II

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    We present the first detailed ab initio quantum mechanical calculations for total and state-specific recombination rate coefficients for e + Ni III --> Ni II. These rates are obtained using a unified treatment for total electron-ion recombination that treats the nonresonant radiative recombination and the resonant dielectronic recombination in a self-consistent unified manner in the close coupling approximation. Large-scale calculations are carried out using a 49-state wavefunction expansion from core configurations 3d^8, 3d^74s, and 3d^64p that permits the inclusion of prominent dipole allowed core transitions. These extensive calculations for the recombination rates of Ni II required hundreds of CPU hours on the Cray T90. The total recombination rate coefficients are provided for a wide range of temperature. The state-specific recombination rates for 532 bound states of doublet and quartet symmetries, and the corresponding photoionization cross sections for leaving the core in the ground state, are presented. Present total recombination rate coefficients differ considerably from the currently used data in astrophysical models.Comment: ApJ Suppl. (submitted), 4 figure
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