16,043 research outputs found

    Performance of the local reconstruction algorithms for the CMS hadron calorimeter with Run 2 data

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    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared

    Expression of E-cadherin by CD8+ T cells promotes their invasion into biliary epithelial cells

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    The presence of CD8+ T cells in the cytoplasm of biliary epithelial cells (BEC) has been correlated with biliary damage associated with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Here, we characterise the mechanism of CD8+ T cell invasion into BEC. CD8+ T cells observed within BEC were large, eccentric, and expressed E-cadherin, CD103 and CD69. They were also not contained within secondary vesicles. Internalisation required cytoskeletal rearrangements which facilitated contact with BEC. Internalised CD8+ T cells were observed in both non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic diseased liver tissues but enriched in PBC patients, both during active disease and at the time of transplantation. E-cadherin expression by CD8+ T cells correlated with frequency of internalisation of these cells into BEC. E-cadherin+ CD8+ T cells formed β-catenin-associated interactions with BEC, were larger than E-cadherin- CD8+ T cells and invaded into BEC more frequently. Overall, we unveil a distinct cell-in-cell structure process in the liver detailing the invasion of E-cadherin+ CD103+ CD69+ CD8+ T cells into BEC. <br/

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC