12,847 research outputs found

    A system for the automatic measurement and digital display of systolic and diastolic blood pressures

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    Basic components of system are - occluding cuff with mounted cuff microscope, cuff pump deflator, pressure transducer, preamplifier unit, electrocardiograph machine, an analog to digital convertor unit, and digital display unit. System utilizes indirect auscultatory method, based on Korotkoff sounds, for measurement

    What does it take to be a star? The role of performance and the media for German soccer players

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    We test existing superstar theories for the German soccer league. We use various measures for individual players’ performance and media presence to analyze whether performance and popularity can explain salaries and superstars in soccer. Moreover, we argue that quantile regression technique should be applied to analyze superstar phenomena instead of OLS used hitherto.Superstars, soccer, quantile regressions, Rosen, Adler

    High dispersive and monolithic 100% efficiency grisms

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    We present a type of grism, a series combination of transmission grating and prism, in which we reduce the number of diffraction orders and achieve a configuration with very high angular dispersion. The grism can be fabricated from a single dielectric material and requires no metallic or dielectric film layers for high transmission diffraction efficiency. One can reach 100% in the -1st transmission diffraction order and the equal damage threshold as the dielectric bulk material. We realized such an element in fused silica with an efficiency of more then 99%. The bevel backside reflection is reduced by a statistical antireflective structure, so we measured an efficiency of the entire grism of 95% at a single wavelength

    Biogeochemistry: Historical and future perspectives

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    The effect of ambipolar electric fields on the electron heating in capacitive RF plasmas

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    We investigate the electron heating dynamics in electropositive argon and helium capacitively coupled RF discharges driven at 13.56 MHz by Particle in Cell simulations and by an analytical model. The model allows to calculate the electric field outside the electrode sheaths, space and time resolved within the RF period. Electrons are found to be heated by strong ambipolar electric fields outside the sheath during the phase of sheath expansion in addition to classical sheath expansion heating. By tracing individual electrons we also show that ionization is primarily caused by electrons that collide with the expanding sheath edge multiple times during one phase of sheath expansion due to backscattering towards the sheath by collisions. A synergistic combination of these different heating events during one phase of sheath expansion is required to accelerate an electron to energies above the threshold for ionization. The ambipolar electric field outside the sheath is found to be time modulated due to a time modulation of the electron mean energy caused by the presence of sheath expansion heating only during one half of the RF period at a given electrode. This time modulation results in more electron heating than cooling inside the region of high electric field outside the sheath on time average. If an electric field reversal is present during sheath collapse, this time modulation and, thus, the asymmetry between the phases of sheath expansion and collapse will be enhanced. We propose that the ambipolar electron heating should be included in models describing electron heating in capacitive RF plasmas

    Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

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    This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began) and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biomeproductivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production) and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in plant growth has different reasons depending on the region of the world: anthropogenic nitrogen deposition is the controlling factor in Europe, increasing global temperatures is the main factor in Siberia, and maybe rising CO2 the factor controlling the carbon fluxes in Amazonia. However, this has not lead to increases in net biome productivity, due to associated losses. Also important is the interaction between biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. It is shown that net primary productivity increases with plant species diversity (50% species loss equals 20% loss in productivity). However, in this extrapolation the action of soil biota is poorly understood although soils contribute the largest number of species and of taxonomic groups to an ecosystem. The global terrestrial carbon budget strongly depends on areas with pristine old growth forests which are carbon sinks. The management options are very limited, mostly short term, and usually associated with high uncertainty. Unmanaged grasslands appear to be a carbon sink of similar magnitude as forest, but generally these ecosystems lost their C with grazing and agricultural use. Extrapolation to the future of Earth climate shows that the biota will not be able to balance fossil fuel emissions, and that it will be essential to develop a carbon free energy system in order to maintain the living conditions on earth. [References: 68

    Derivation of diagnostic models based on formalized process knowledge

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    © IFAC.Industrial systems are vulnerable to faults. Early and accurate detection and diagnosis in production systems can minimize down-time, increase the safety of the plant operation, and reduce manufacturing costs. Knowledge- and model-based approaches to automated fault detection and diagnosis have been demonstrated to be suitable for fault cause analysis within a broad range of industrial processes and research case studies. However, the implementation of these methods demands a complex and error-prone development phase, especially due to the extensive efforts required during the derivation of models and their respective validation. In an effort to reduce such modeling complexity, this paper presents a structured causal modeling approach to supporting the derivation of diagnostic models based on formalized process knowledge. The method described herein exploits the Formalized Process Description Guideline VDI/VDE 3682 to establish causal relations among key-process variables, develops an extension of the Signed Digraph model combined with the use of fuzzy set theory to allow more accurate causality descriptions, and proposes a representation of the resulting diagnostic model in CAEX/AutomationML targeting dynamic data access, portability, and seamless information exchange

    In-Suit Doppler Technology Assessment

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    The objective of this program was to perform a technology assessment survey of non-invasive air embolism detection utilizing Doppler ultrasound methodologies. The primary application of this technology will be a continuous monitor for astronauts while performing extravehicular activities (EVA's). The technology assessment was to include: (1) development of a full understanding of all relevant background research; and (2) a survey of the medical ultrasound marketplace for expertise, information, and technical capability relevant to this development. Upon completion of the assessment, LSR was to provide an overview of technological approaches and R&D/manufacturing organizations
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