95 research outputs found

    The Impact of Weather Extremes on Agricultural Production Methods: Does Drought Increase Adoption of Conservation Tillage Practices?

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    The adoption of conservation tillage practices such as ridge till, mulch till, or no-till has been shown to reduce soil erosion. An additional benefit of these conservation practices is that they also increase soil moisture. Therefore, these practices appear to be a method that agricultural producers can use to reduce their risk associated with abnormally dry or wet conditions (i.e., drought or flood). Given the large amount of money spent by the USDA on crop insurance indemnity and ad-hoc disaster relief payments, practices that reduce the risk of drought to the farmer should be strongly encouraged. Using SUR estimation with random effects, the paper uses panel data to measure the impact of extreme weather events on the adoption of conservation tillage. Panel data allows the identification of differences in adoption rates as a function of the severity of the drought or flood event. The adoption of no-till, alternative conservation tillage, and reduced till are estimated relative to conventional tillage. Both extremely dry and extremely wet conditions are found to increase the adoption of conservation tillage; while extremely wet conditions increase the adoption of both no-till and other conservation tillage practices.Farm Management,

    IS EQUITY A CONSTRAINT? APPLICATIONS TO BLOCK RATE AND OTHER PRICING SCHEMES WITH HETEROGENEOUS USERS

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    In this paper, we model the trade-off between equity and efficiency in a market for a resource when users of that resource are heterogeneous. We develop the analytical model, and show that under certain circumstances efficiency can be achieved in a manner that also reduces inequality. We also illustrate these results through the use of simulation methods.Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,

    The Economic Impact of Drought on the Whitewater Rafting Industry in Colorado

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    Community/Rural/Urban Development, Risk and Uncertainty,

    Input Price Risk and the Adoption of Conservation Technology

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    Replaced with revised version of poster 07/12/11.price risk, technology adoption, matching, propensity score, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty, Q1, Q5,

    Do Hypothetical Choices Indicate True Risk Preferences? A comparison of stated and revealed data on decisions over risky outcomes

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    Understanding how individuals make decisions when outcomes are risky is of significant interest to policymakers, economists, and businesses. The answer to questions such as why some drivers purchase the minimum legally allowable level of car insurance while others buy higher coverage, or why some producers buy the highest coverage available for crop insurance, while others do not purchase any insurance is that different people have different risk preferences. Risk preferences are varying attitudes or preferences toward different types of risks

    Statistical Analysis of the Adoption of Conservation Practices in Midwest and Great Plains Agriculture

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    Improving conservation in conventional agriculture is crucial for the sustainability of agricultural economies. The aim of this project is to identify factors correlated with agricultural producers adopting conservation practices on their land. Producers tend to choose their tillage and cropping systems based on soil management and yield/productivity concerns. Reasons and concerns for using no-till vary by state. For example, producers in Iowa choosing their tillage system based on yield/productivity concerns are 9.8% less likely to use no-till, while producers in South Dakota with the same concerns are 21.5% more likely to use no-till

    Environmental Regulations and the Structure of U.S. Hog Farms

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    The U.S hog production industry has been continually subjected to rapid structural changes since the early 1990s. The industry's move towards more concentrated large hog farms and geographical concentration of such farms, have triggered public concerns over the dangers such big animal feeding operations are likely to pose to the waters of the country. This study investigates the implications of state-level environmental regulations on the structure of hog farms. The results of this study suggest that environmental regulations will result in one of three possible scenarios: (1) a more competitive industry in which small hog operations are not adversely affected which will allow more small operations to enter rather than exit the industry; (2) a more concentrated hog production industry in which large operations survive while small operations exit the industry; (3) no change in the structure of the industry where both sizes of operations are not significantly affected by environmental stringency.Perfect competition, U.S. hog production industry, Environmental regulations, Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries,

    Applying Interconnected Game Theory to Analyze Transboundary Waters: A Case Study of the Kura-Araks Basin

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    A number of environmental problems are international in nature, including many water management issues. Rivers, for example, do not recognize political boundaries. Therefore, pollution generated in one country can affect neighboring countries, while water extraction in an upstream country can affect water flow and water availability in a downstream country. The situation creates an interdependency among countries, which might lead to disputes over the management of transboundary water. Therefore, coordination among the countries is necessary for effective management of these transboundary resources. The focus of a recently published study (Khachaturyan and Schoengold, 2018) is the transboundary Kura-Araks Basin (see Figure 1 for its location), which is a major river system in the South Caucasus, with about 11 million people living in the basin. The countries in the basin are Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, and Turkey, with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia having over 80 percent of the streamflow. The Kura-Araks Basin is a primary source of water for agricultural, industrial, and municipal uses in the South Caucasian countries. The study determines whether there are economic benefits to be gained from cooperation in the management of the Kura River (shared between Azerbaijan and Georgia), and under what conditions cooperation is an achievable outcome. Azerbaijan withdraws about 35 percent of the total available renewable water resources while Georgia only withdraws about 3 percent

    Does Environmental Regulation Hinder Hog Production Expansion? The Answer is More Complicated than the Question

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    Federal regulation governing management and dis-posal of the millions of tons of hog manure pro-duced every year is derived from the Clean Water Act (CWA). Enacted in 1972, the CWA amended the 1948 Federal Water Pollution Control Act to shift regulatory oversight from states to the federal government by requiring the former to adopt a federally-mandated National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit. Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the program empowers the agency to issue permits to facilities applying for permission to discharge and to do so within the agency\u27s Effluent Limitations Guidelines and Standards. Discharge permits may also be issued by states authorized to implement the CWA. However, the EPA retains the authority to enforce any violation of state-issued permits. The EPA also has the power to overrule state deci-sions on water pollution

    Lessons to Be Learned from Groundwater Trading in Australia and the United States

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    This chapter provides an overview of the issues and challenges facing policy makers intending to establish groundwater markets. It studies in detail two developed countries that have introduced groundwater trading and have some experience in its implementation—Australia and the United States of America— and draws out lessons from these countries that need to be considered for the development of groundwater markets around the world. The key lessons that this chapter stresses are: the importance of establishing institutions and regulations; investing in high quality economic and scientific research; that opportunities arise from crises; and that social concerns are not always the most important considerations to be aware of for efficient and effective groundwater markets
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