18 research outputs found

    The association between dietary trajectories across childhood and blood pressure in early adolescence: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

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    Background: Cardio-metabolic risk factors, including hypertension, are increasingly appearing in childhood. The aims of this study were to examine the associations between dietary trajectories across childhood and subsequent blood pressure (BP) at age 10/11, and to further determine whether these associations were explained by BMI or fat mass. Methods: Data from 4360 participants from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analysed. Dietary scores were computed based on similarity of intake to the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to identify distinct dietary trajectories based on participant’s individual dietary scores at up to four timepoints between age 4 and 11. Linear regression models examined the associations between dietary trajectories and BP measured at age 10/11. Models were adjusted for relevant covariates, and BMI or fat mass. Results: Four dietary trajectories were identified: “never healthy” (4.3%); “moderately healthy” (23.1%); “becoming less healthy” (14.2%); and “always healthy” (58.4%). Children in the “always healthy” trajectory had a lower systolic (−2.19 mmHg; 95% CI −3.78, −0.59) and diastolic BP (−1.71; −2.95, −0.47), compared with children in the “never healthy” trajectory after covariate adjustment. These associations were attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI or fat mass, but remained significant for diastolic BP. Conclusions: A dietary trajectory mostly aligned with the Australian Dietary Guidelines across childhood was associated with slightly lower BP at age 10/11, which was not fully explained by BMI or fat mass. These findings support the need to encourage and enable healthy dietary habits early in childhood to attenuate the increasing burden of cardio-metabolic disease

    The role of childhood adversity in the development of gestational diabetes

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    Introduction: The influence of women's childhood psychosocial environment and subsequent preconception mental health on risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus is unclear. This study examines this relationship. Methods: Data from a population-based cohort study, the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, were used. A total of 6,317 women with no pre-existing diabetes were followed from 1996 (aged 18–23 years) until 2015. Gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis was self-reported. Exposures to eight subcategories of adverse childhood experiences were recalled. Individual subcategories and total number of adverse childhood experiences were examined. Log-binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate RRs and 95% CIs. Analyses were adjusted for early life, preconception, and antenatal gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors. Effect modification by preconception mental health was tested using cross-product terms. Analyses were conducted in 2018. Results: Among 11,556 pregnancies, 4.7% were complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. Compared with women not exposed to adverse childhood experiences, exposure to any three adverse childhood experiences (6% of women, adjusted RR=1.73, 95% CI=1.02, 3.01) or four or more adverse childhood experiences (7%, adjusted RR=1.76, 95% CI=1.04, 2.99) was associated with elevated gestational diabetes mellitus risk in women with preconception depressive symptoms. Among the subcategories of adverse childhood experiences, physical abuse, and household substance abuse were associated with higher gestational diabetes mellitus risk. Adverse childhood experiences were not associated with gestational diabetes mellitus in women without depressive symptoms before pregnancy (p=0.01, for interaction). Conclusions: These findings suggest that, in addition to primary prevention of childhood adversity, strategies to curb poor mental health trajectories among women exposed to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Association between inflammatory potential of diet and risk of depression in middle-aged women: the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

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    Dietary factors and inflammation markers have been shown to play a role in the development of depression. However, there are very few studies that have explored the association between inflammatory potential of diet and risk of depression. In this study, we examined the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII), which was developed specifically to measure the inflammatory potential of diet, and risk of depression in the middle-aged cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. A total of 6438 women with a mean age of 52·0 (sd 1·4) years at baseline were followed-up at five surveys over 12 years (2001-2013). Depression was defined as a score of ≥10 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression-10 scale. The DII score, a literature-derived, population-based dietary index that has been validated against several inflammatory markers, was computed on the basis of dietary intake assessed using a validated FFQ. Generalised estimating equations were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of depression according to DII score. Models were adjusted for energy intake, highest education completed, marital status, menopause status and symptoms, personal illness or injury, smoking status, physical activity, BMI and depression diagnosis or treatment. In total, 1156 women (18 %) had scores≥10 on the CESD scale over the course of 9 years. Women with the most anti-inflammatory diet had an approximately 20 % lower risk of developing depression compared with women with the most pro-inflammatory diet (RRDII quartile 1 v. 4: 0·81; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·96; P trend=0·03). These results suggest that an anti-inflammatory diet is associated with lower risk of depression in middle-aged Australian women.</p

    Factors across the life course predict women's change in smoking behaviour during pregnancy and in midlife: results from the National Child Development Study

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    BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking before, during and after pregnancy remains one of the few preventable factors associated with poor health outcomes for mothers and their children. We investigate predictors across the life course for change in smoking behaviour during pregnancy and whether this change predicts smoking status in midlife.METHODS: Data were from the National Child Development Study (1958 British birth cohort). We included female cohort members who reported a first pregnancy up to age 33 years. Among 1468 women who smoked before pregnancy, we examined predictors reported in childhood (age 11 years), adolescence (age 16 years) and early adulthood (age 23 years) of change in smoking behaviour from 12 months before to during pregnancy using log-binomial regression. The association between change in smoking behaviour during pregnancy and smoking status in midlife (age 55 years) was examined while adjusting for predictors across the life course.RESULTS: Among prepregnancy smokers (39%), 26% reduced and 35% quit smoking during pregnancy. Parental smoking and lower social class during childhood, and early adulthood lower social class, depression, early smoking initiation, high smoking intensity, living with a smoker, no pregnancy planning and early motherhood were associated with lower probability of smoking reduction or cessation in pregnancy. Compared with women who smoked before and during pregnancy, women who reduced or quit were two times more likely to be non-smoker at age 55 years (95% CI 1.76 to 2.20).CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this population-based birth cohort study lend support for smoking cessation strategies that target those at risk at various stages across the life course.</p

    Quality of low-carbohydrate diets among Australian post-partum women: Cross-sectional analysis of a national population-based cohort study

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    Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) are popular among people attempting weight loss and recommended for pregnant women with gestational diabetes (GDM), but they may increase health risks if nutritionally inadequate. We aimed to describe the dietary intake of post-partum women according to their relative carbohydrate intake, overall, and among women attempting weight loss or diagnosed with GDM in their recent pregnancy. This cross-sectional population-based cohort study included 2093 post-partum women aged 25-36 years who participated in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Relative carbohydrate intake was determined using a previously developed LCD score. Data were weighted to account for oversampling of women from rural/remote areas. More than half of women (n[weighted] = 1362, 66.3%) were trying to lose weight, and 4.6% (n[weighted]=88) had GDM in their recent pregnancy. Women with the lowest relative carbohydrate intake (LCD score quartile 4) consumed 36.8% of total energy intake from carbohydrates, and had a lower intake of refined grains, whole grains, fruit and fruit juice, and a higher intake of red and processed meat, compared with women with the highest relative carbohydrate intake (quartile 1). Different food groups, both healthy and unhealthy, were restricted depending on whether women were attempting weight loss and had recent GDM. These findings may reflect a lack of knowledge among post-partum women on carbohydrates and dietary guidelines. Health professionals may have an important role in providing advice and support for post-partum women who wish to restrict their carbohydrate intake, to ensure optimal diet quality.</p

    Carbohydrate restriction in midlife is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes among Australian women: a cohort study

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    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) are increasingly popular but may be nutritionally inadequate. We aimed to examine if carbohydrate restriction in midlife is associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and if this association differs by previous gestational diabetes (GDM) diagnosis.METHODS AND RESULTS: Dietary intake was assessed for 9689 women from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health in 2001 (aged 50-55) and 2013 (aged 62-67) via validated food frequency questionnaires. Average long-term carbohydrate restriction was assessed using a low-carbohydrate diet score (highest quartile (Q4) indicating lowest proportion of energy from carbohydrates). Incidence of T2DM between 2001 and 2016 was self-reported at 3-yearly surveys. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. During 15 years of follow-up, 959 women (9.9%) developed T2DM. Carbohydrate restriction was associated with T2DM after adjustment for sociodemographic factors, history of GDM diagnosis and physical activity (Q4 vs Q1: RR 1.27 [95% CI 1.10, 1.48]), and this was attenuated when additionally adjusted for BMI (1.10 [0.95, 1.27]). Carbohydrate restriction was associated with lower consumption of fruit, cereals and high-fibre bread, and lower intakes of these food groups were associated with higher T2DM risk. Associations did not differ by history of GDM (P for interaction &gt;0.15).CONCLUSION: Carbohydrate restriction was associated with higher T2DM incidence in middle-aged women, regardless of GDM history. Health professionals should advise women to avoid LCDs that are low in fruit and grains, and to consume a diet in line with current dietary recommendations.</p

    Prevention of Gestational Diabetes: The Role of Dietary Intake, Physical Activity, and Weight before, during, and between Pregnancies

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    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication of pregnancy and a significant clinical and public health problem with lifelong and intergenerational adverse health consequences for mothers and their offspring. The preconception, early pregnancy, and interconception periods represent opportune windows to engage women in preventive and health promotion interventions. This review provides an overview of findings from observational and intervention studies on the role of diet, physical activity, and weight (change) during these periods in the primary prevention of GDM. Current evidence suggests that supporting women to increase physical activity and achieve appropriate weight gain during early pregnancy and enabling women to optimize their weight and health behaviors prior to and between pregnancies have the potential to reduce rates of GDM. Translation of current evidence into practice requires further development and evaluation of co-designed interventions across community, health service, and policy levels to determine how women can be reached and supported to optimize their health behaviors before, during, and between pregnancies to reduce GDM risk

    Birth Outcomes, Health, and Health Care Needs of Childbearing Women following Wildfire Disasters:An Integrative, State-of-the-Science Review

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    BACKGROUND: The frequency and severity of extreme weather events such as wildfires are expected to increase due to climate change. Childbearing women, that is, women who are pregnant, soon to be pregnant, or have recently given birth, may be particularly vulnerable to the effect of wildfire exposure. OBJECTIVES: This review sought to systematically assess what is known about birth outcomes, health, and health care needs of childbearing women during and after exposure to wildfires. METHODS: An integrative review methodology was utilized to enable article selection, data extraction, and synthesis across qualitative and quantita-tive studies. Comprehensive searches of SCOPUS (including MEDLINE and Embase), CINAHL, PubMed, and Google Scholar identified studies for inclusion with no date restriction. Included studies were independently appraised by two reviewers using the Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool. The findings are summarized and illustrated in tables. RESULTS: Database searches identified 480 records. Following title, abstract, and full text screening, sixteen studies published between 2012 and 2022 were identified for this review. Eleven studies considered an association between in utero exposure to wildfire and impacts on birth weight and length of gestation. One study reported increased rates of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus and gestational hypertension following exposure; whereas one study reported differences in the secondary sex ratio. Two studies reported higher incidence of birth defects following in utero exposure to wildfire smoke. Three studies reported increased mental health morbidity, and one study associated a reduction in breastfeeding among women who evac-uated from a wildfire disaster. DISCUSSION: Evidence indicates that wildfire exposure may be associated with changes to birth outcomes and increased morbidity for childbearing women and their babies. These effects may be profound and have long-term and wide-ranging public health implications. This research can inform the development of effective clinical and public health strategies to address the needs of childbearing women exposed to wildfire disaster. https://doi. org/10.1289/EHP10544

    Menstrual symptoms and risk of preterm birth: a population-based longitudinal study

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    OBJECTIVES: To examine the prospective association between menstrual symptoms before pregnancy and preterm birth.METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from 14 247 young Australian women born between 1973 and 1978 who participated in a longitudinal, population-based cohort study between 1996 and 2015. Women were first surveyed at 18-23 years, and seven waves of data were collected at roughly three-yearly intervals. At each survey, women were asked about "severe period pain," "heavy periods," and "irregular periods" within the last 12 months. From 2009 onward, information on their children was collected, including birth dates and preterm birth (&lt;37 weeks). Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations was used to examine prospective associations between self-reported menstrual symptoms before pregnancy and risk of preterm birth.RESULTS: Data from 6615 mothers who had 12 337 live singleton births were available for analysis. Among all births, women reporting severe period pain (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.34 [95% CI 1.10-1.62]) or heavy periods (1.25 [1.02-1.53]) before pregnancy had higher odds of preterm birth. However, in analyses stratified by birth order, only severe period pain (2.05 [1.41-2.99]), heavy periods (1.77 [1.23-2.55]), or irregular periods (1.58 [1.10-2.28]) before a second or subsequent birth were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth.CONCLUSIONS: Severe period pain, heavy periods, and irregular periods before a second or subsequent birth may be associated with preterm birth.</p

    Pre-pregnancy dietary micronutrient adequacy is associated with lower risk of developing gestational diabetes in Australian women

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    Evidence on pre-pregnancy dietary micronutrient intake in relation to gestational diabetes (GDM) development is limited. Therefore, we examined the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake before pregnancy and the association between pre-pregnancy dietary micronutrient adequacy, i.e. meeting micronutrient intake recommendations for a range of micronutrients, and risk of developing GDM in an Australian population. We hypothesized that women with an overall higher micronutrient adequacy would have a lower risk of developing GDM. We used data from the prospective Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health cohort, in which 3607 women, aged 25-30 years at baseline in 2003 and without diabetes, were followed-up until 2015. Diet was assessed with a validated 101-item food frequency questionnaire. The Micronutrient Adequacy Ratio (MAR) was calculated as the micronutrient intake divided by its recommended dietary intake averaged over 13 micronutrients. Multivariable regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). In 6263 pregnancies, 285 cases of GDM were documented (4.6%). High prevalences of inadequate dietary micronutrient intake were observed for calcium (47.9%), folate (80.8%), magnesium (52.5%), potassium (63.8%) and vitamin E (78.6%), indicating suboptimal pre-pregnancy micronutrient intakes. Inadequate intakes of individual micronutrients were not associated with risk of developing GDM. However, women in the highest quartile of the MAR had a 39% lower risk of developing GDM compared to women in the lowest quartile (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43-0.86, p for trend 0.01). These results highlight the importance of adequate pre-pregnancy micronutrient intake.</p
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