207 research outputs found

    Unraveling the Differential Functions and Regulation of Striatal Neuron Sub-Populations in Motor Control, Reward, and Motivational Processes

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    The striatum, the major input structure of the basal ganglia, is critically involved in motor control and learning of habits and skills, and is also involved in motivational and reward processes. The dorsal striatum, caudate–putamen, is primarily implicated in motor functions whereas the ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens, is essential for motivation and drug reinforcement. Severe basal ganglia dysfunction occurs in movement disorders as Parkinson's and Huntington's disease, and in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and drug addiction. The striatum is essentially composed of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) that are output neurons giving rise to the so-called direct and indirect pathways and are targets of the cerebral cortex and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons. Although the involvement of striatal sub-areas in motor control and motivation has been thoroughly characterized, major issues remained concerning the specific and respective functions of the two MSNs sub-populations, D2R-striatopallidal (dopamine D2 receptor-positive) and D1R-striatonigral (dopamine D1 receptor-positive) neurons, as well as their specific regulation. Here, we review recent advances that gave new insight in the understanding of the differential roles of striatopallidal and striatonigral neurons in the basal ganglia circuit. We discuss innovative techniques developed in the last decade which allowed a much precise evaluation of molecular pathways implicated in motivational processes and functional roles of striatopallidal and striatonigral neurons in motor control and in the establishment of reward-associated behavior

    Targeting Neuronal Populations of the Striatum

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    The striatum is critically involved in motor and motivational functions. The dorsal striatum, caudate–putamen, is primarily implicated in motor control and the learning of habits and skills, whereas the ventral striatum, the nucleus accumbens, is essential for motivation and drug reinforcement. The GABA medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, about 95% of striatal neurons), which are targets of the cerebral cortex and the midbrain dopaminergic neurons, form two pathways. The dopamine D1 receptor-positive (D1R) striatonigral MSNs project to the medial globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticulata (direct pathway) and co-express D1R and substance P, whereas dopamine D2 receptor-positive (D2R) striatopallidal MSNs project to the lateral globus pallidus (indirect pathway) and co-express D2R, adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) and enkephalin (Enk). The specific role of the two efferent pathways in motor and motivational control remained poorly understood until recently. Indeed, D1R striatonigral and D2R striatopallidal neurons, are intermingled and morphologically indistinguishable, and, hence, cannot be functionally dissociated with techniques such as chemical lesions or surgery. In view of the still debated respective functions of projection D2R striatopallidal and D1R striatonigral neurons and striatal interneurons, both in motor control and learning but also in more cognitive processes such as motivation, the present review sum up the development of new models and techniques (bacterial artificial chromosome transgenesis, optogenetic, viral transgenesis) allowing the selective targeting of these striatal neuronal populations in adult animal brain to understand their specific roles

    Modulation of Ciliary Phosphoinositide Content Regulates Trafficking and Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Output

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    SummaryCiliary transport is required for ciliogenesis, signal transduction, and trafficking of receptors to the primary cilium. Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (INPP5E) have been associated with ciliary dysfunction; however, its role in regulating ciliary phosphoinositides is unknown. Here we report that in neural stem cells, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) is found in high levels in cilia whereas phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is not detectable. Upon INPP5E inactivation, PI(4,5)P2 accumulates at the ciliary tip whereas PI4P is depleted. This is accompanied by recruitment of the PI(4,5)P2-interacting protein TULP3 to the ciliary membrane, along with Gpr161. This results in an increased production of cAMP and a repression of the Shh transcription gene Gli1. Our results reveal the link between ciliary regulation of phosphoinositides by INPP5E and Shh regulation via ciliary trafficking of TULP3/Gpr161 and also provide mechanistic insight into ciliary alterations found in Joubert and MORM syndromes resulting from INPP5E mutations

    Homeostatic Plasticity of Striatal Neurons Intrinsic Excitability following Dopamine Depletion

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    The striatum is the major input structure of basal ganglia and is involved in adaptive control of behaviour through the selection of relevant informations. Dopaminergic neurons that innervate striatum die in Parkinson disease, leading to inefficient adaptive behaviour. Neuronal activity of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN) is modulated by dopamine receptors. Although dopamine signalling had received substantial attention, consequences of dopamine depletion on MSN intrinsic excitability remain unclear. Here we show, by performing perforated patch clamp recordings on brain slices, that dopamine depletion leads to an increase in MSN intrinsic excitability through the decrease of an inactivating A-type potassium current, IA. Despite the large decrease in their excitatory synaptic inputs determined by the decreased dendritic spines density and the increase in minimal current to evoke the first EPSP, this increase in intrinsic excitability resulted in an enhanced responsiveness to their remaining synapses, allowing them to fire similarly or more efficiently following input stimulation than in control condition. Therefore, this increase in intrinsic excitability through the regulation of IA represents a form of homeostatic plasticity allowing neurons to compensate for perturbations in synaptic transmission and to promote stability in firing. The present observations show that this homeostatic ability to maintain firing rates within functional range also occurs in pathological conditions, allowing stabilizing neural computation within affected neuronal networks

    Subcellular structural plasticity caused by the absence of the fast Ca²⁺ buffer calbindin D-28k in recurrent collaterals of cerebellar Purkinje neurons

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    Purkinje cells (PC) control spike timing of neighboring PC by their recurrent axon collaterals. These synapses underlie fast cerebellar oscillations and are characterized by a strong facilitation within a time window of i transients were previously shown to be bigger in PC boutons of young (second postnatal week) CB-/- mice, yet IPSC mean amplitudes remained unaltered in connected CB–/– PC. Since PC spine morphology is altered in adult CB–/– mice (longer necks, larger spine head volume), we summoned that morphological compensation/adaptation mechanisms might also be induced in CB–/– PC axon collaterals including boutons. In these mice, biocytin-filled PC reconstructions revealed that the number of axonal varicosities per PC axon collateral was augmented, mostly confined to the granule cell layer. Additionally, the volume of individual boutons was increased, evidenced from z-stacks of confocal images. EM analysis of PC–PC synapses revealed an enhancement in active zone (AZ) length by approximately 23%, paralleled by a higher number of docked vesicles per AZ in CB–/– boutons. Moreover, synaptic cleft width was larger in CB–/– (23.8 ± 0.43 nm) compared to wild type (21.17 ± 0.39 nm) synapses. We propose that the morphological changes, i.e., the larger bouton volume, the enhanced AZ length and the higher number of docked vesicles, in combination with the increase in synaptic cleft width likely modifies the GABA release properties at this synapse in CB–/– mice. We view these changes as adaptation/homeostatic mechanisms to likely maintain characteristics of synaptic transmission in the absence of the fast Ca²⁺ buffer CB. Our study provides further evidence on the functioning of the Ca²⁺ homeostasome

    Striatal adenosine A2A receptor neurons control active-period sleep via parvalbumin neurons in external globus pallidus

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    Dysfunction of the striatum is frequently associated with sleep disturbances. However, its role in sleep-wake regulation has been paid little attention even though the striatum densely expresses adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs), which are essential for adenosine-induced sleep. Here we showed that chemogenetic activation of A2AR neurons in specific subregions of the striatum induced a remarkable increase in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Anatomical mapping and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that striatal A2AR neurons innervated the external globus pallidus (GPe) in a topographically organized manner and preferentially formed inhibitory synapses with GPe parvalbumin (PV) neurons. Moreover, lesions of GPe PV neurons abolished the sleep-promoting effect of striatal A2AR neurons. In addition, chemogenetic inhibition of striatal A2AR neurons led to a significant decrease of NREM sleep at active period, but not inactive period of mice. These findings reveal a prominent contribution of striatal A2AR neuron/GPe PV neuron circuit in sleep control

    Slow-wave sleep is controlled by a subset of nucleus accumbens core neurons in mice

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    Sleep control is ascribed to a two-process model, a widely accepted concept that posits homoeostatic drive and a circadian process as the major sleep-regulating factors. Cognitive and emotional factors also influence sleep–wake behaviour; however, the precise circuit mechanisms underlying their effects on sleep control are unknown. Previous studies suggest that adenosine has a role affecting behavioural arousal in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain area critical for reinforcement and reward. Here, we show that chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of excitatory adenosine A2A receptor-expressing indirect pathway neurons in the core region of the NAc strongly induces slow-wave sleep. Chemogenetic inhibition of the NAc indirect pathway neurons prevents the sleep induction, but does not affect the homoeostatic sleep rebound. In addition, motivational stimuli inhibit the activity of ventral pallidum-projecting NAc indirect pathway neurons and suppress sleep. Our findings reveal a prominent contribution of this indirect pathway to sleep control associated with motivation

    Allosteric interactions between agonists and antagonists within the adenosine A2A receptor-dopamine D2 receptor heterotetramer

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    Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromers are key modulators of striatal neuronal function. It has been suggested that the psychostimulant effects of caffeine depend on its ability to block an allosteric modulation within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, by which adenosine decreases the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of dopamine at the D2R. We describe novel unsuspected allosteric mechanisms within the heteromer by which not only A2AR agonists, but also A2AR antagonists, decrease the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of D2R agonists and the affinity of D2R antagonists. Strikingly, these allosteric modulations disappear on agonist and antagonist coadministration. This can be explained by a model that considers A2AR-D2R heteromers as heterotetramers, constituted by A2AR and D2R homodimers, as demonstrated by experiments with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence and bioluminescence complementation. As predicted by the model, high concentrations of A2AR antagonists behaved as A2AR agonists and decreased D2R function in the brain

    Alpha2-Containing Glycine Receptors Promote Neonatal Spontaneous Activity of Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons and Support Maturation of Glutamatergic Inputs

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    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) containing the α2 subunit are highly expressed in the developing brain, where they regulate neuronal migration and maturation, promote spontaneous network activity and subsequent development of synaptic connections. Mutations in GLRA2 are associated with autism spectrum disorder, but the underlying pathophysiology is not described yet. Here, using Glra2-knockout mice, we found a GlyR-dependent effect on neonatal spontaneous activity of dorsal striatum medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and maturation of the incoming glutamatergic innervation. Our data demonstrate that functional GlyRs are highly expressed in MSNs of one-week-old mice, but they do not generate endogenous chloride-mediated tonic or phasic current. Despite of that, knocking out the Glra2 severely affects the shape of action potentials and impairs spontaneous activity and the frequency of miniature AMPA receptor-mediated currents in MSNs. This reduction in spontaneous activity and glutamatergic signaling can attribute to the observed changes in neonatal behavioral phenotypes as seen in ultrasonic vocalizations and righting reflex. In adult Glra2-knockout animals, the glutamatergic synapses in MSNs remain functionally underdeveloped. The number of glutamatergic synapses and release probability at presynaptic site remain unaffected, but the amount of postsynaptic AMPA receptors is decreased. This deficit is a consequence of impaired development of the neuronal circuitry since acute inhibition of GlyRs by strychnine in adult MSNs does not affect the properties of glutamatergic synapses. Altogether, these results demonstrate that GlyR-mediated signaling supports neonatal spontaneous MSN activity and, in consequence, promotes the functional maturation of glutamatergic synapses on MSNs. The described mechanism might shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms in GLRA2-linked autism spectrum disorder cases

    Le cerveau en constante reconstruction: Le concept de plasticité cérébrale

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    SCOPUS: ar.jinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishe