736 research outputs found

    Quality of life of survivors of paediatric intensive care

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    Objective: The mortality rate in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) has fallen over the last two decades. More advanced treatment is offered to children with life-threatening disease and there is substantial interest in knowing whether long term outcome and quality of life after intensive care are acceptable

    Measurement of ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes with electrical impedance tomography

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    Introduction Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has been shown to be able to distinguish both ventilation and perfusion. With adequate filtering the regional distributions of both ventilation and perfusion and their relationships could be analysed. Several methods of separation have been suggested previously, including breath holding, electrocardiograph (ECG) gating and frequency filtering. Many of these methods require interventions inappropriate in a clinical setting. This study therefore aims to extend a previously reported frequency filtering technique to a spontaneously breathing cohort and assess the regional distributions of ventilation and perfusion and their relationship. Methods Ten healthy adults were measured during a breath hold and while spontaneously breathing in supine, prone, left and right lateral positions. EIT data were analysed with and without filtering at the respiratory and heart rate. Profiles of ventilation, perfusion and ventilation/perfusion related impedance change were generated and regions of ventilation and pulmonary perfusion were identified and compared. Results Analysis of the filtration technique demonstrated its ability to separate the ventilation and cardiac related impedance signals without negative impact. It was, therefore, deemed suitable for use in this spontaneously breathing cohort. Regional distributions of ventilation, perfusion and the combined ΔZV/ΔZQ were calculated along the gravity axis and anatomically in each position. Along the gravity axis, gravity dependence was seen only in the lateral positions in ventilation distribution, with the dependent lung being better ventilated regardless of position. This gravity dependence was not seen in perfusion. When looking anatomically, differences were only apparent in the lateral positions. The lateral position ventilation distributions showed a difference in the left lung, with the right lung maintaining a similar distribution in both lateral positions. This is likely caused by more pronounced anatomical changes in the left lung when changing positions. Conclusions The modified filtration technique was demonstrated to be effective in separating the ventilation and perfusion signals in spontaneously breathing subjects. Gravity dependence was seen only in ventilation distribution in the left lung in lateral positions, suggesting gravity based shifts in anatomical structures. Gravity dependence was not seen in any perfusion distributions

    Early high flow nasal cannula therapy in bronchiolitis, a prospective randomised control trial (protocol): A Paediatric Acute Respiratory Intervention Study (PARIS)

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    Background Bronchiolitis imposes the largest health care burden on non-elective paediatric hospital admissions worldwide, with up to 15 % of cases requiring admission to intensive care. A number of previous studies have failed to show benefit of pharmaceutical treatment in respect to length of stay, reduction in PICU admission rates or intubation frequency. The early use of non-invasive respiratory support devices in less intensive scenarios to facilitate earlier respiratory support may have an impact on outcome by avoiding progression of the disease process. High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC) therapy has emerged as a new method to provide humidified air flow to deliver a non-invasive form of positive pressure support with titratable oxygen fraction. There is a lack of high-grade evidence on use of HFNC therapy in bronchiolitis. Methods/Design Prospective multi-centre randomised trial comparing standard treatment (standard subnasal oxygen) and High Flow Nasal Cannula therapy in infants with bronchiolitis admitted to 17 hospitals emergency departments and wards in Australia and New Zealand, including 12 non-tertiary regional/metropolitan and 5 tertiary centres. The primary outcome is treatment failure; defined as meeting three out of four pre-specified failure criteria requiring escalation of treatment or higher level of care; i) heart rate remains unchanged or increased compared to admission/enrolment observations, ii) respiratory rate remains unchanged or increased compared to admission/enrolment observations, iii) oxygen requirement in HFNC therapy arm exceeds FiO2 ≥ 40 % to maintain SpO2 ≥ 92 % (or ≥94 %) or oxygen requirement in standard subnasal oxygen therapy arm exceeds >2L/min to maintain SpO2 ≥ 92 % (or ≥94 %), and iv) hospital internal Early Warning Tool calls for medical review and escalation of care. Secondary outcomes include transfer to tertiary institution, admission to intensive care, length of stay, length of oxygen treatment, need for non-invasive/invasive ventilation, intubation, adverse events, and cost. Discussion This large multicenter randomised trial will allow the definitive assessment of the efficacy of HFNC therapy as compared to standard subnasal oxygen in the treatment of bronchiolitis

    Ebola Virus Shedding and Transmission: Review of Current Evidence

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    BACKGROUND: The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented, with >28 500 reported cases and >11 000 deaths. Understanding the key elements of Ebola virus transmission is necessary to implement adequate infection prevention and control measures to protect healthcare workers and halt transmission in the community. METHODS: We performed an extensive PubMed literature review encompassing the period from discovery of Ebola virus, in 1976, until 1 June 2016 to evaluate the evidence on modes of Ebola virus shedding and transmission. FINDINGS: Ebola virus has been isolated by cell culture from blood, saliva, urine, aqueous humor, semen, and breast milk from infected or convalescent patients. Ebola virus RNA has been noted in the following body fluids days or months after onset of illness: saliva (22 days), conjunctiva/tears (28 days), stool (29 days), vaginal fluid (33 days), sweat (44 days), urine (64 days), amniotic fluid (38 days), aqueous humor (101 days), cerebrospinal fluid (9 months), breast milk (16 months [preliminary data]), and semen (18 months). Nevertheless, the only documented cases of secondary transmission from recovered patients have been through sexual transmission. We did not find strong evidence supporting respiratory or fomite-associated transmission

    Impact of depth of propofol anaesthesia on functional residual capacity and ventilation distribution in healthy preschool children

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    Background Propofol is commonly used in children undergoing diagnostic interventions under anaesthesia or deep sedation. Because hypoxaemia is the most common cause of critical deterioration during anaesthesia and sedation, improved understanding of the effects of anaesthetics on pulmonary function is essential. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of propofol anaesthesia on functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation distribution. Methods In 20 children without cardiopulmonary disease mean age (sd) 49.75 (13.3) months and mean weight (sd) 17.5 (3.9)kg, anaesthesia was induced by a bolus of i.v. propofol 2mgkg−1 followed by an infusion of propofol 120µgkg−1min−1 (level I). Then, a bolus of propofol 1mgkg−1 was given followed by a propofol infusion at 240µgkg−1min−1 (level II). FRC and lung clearance index (LCI) were calculated at each level of anaesthesia using multibreath analysis. Results The FRC mean (sd) decreased from 20.7 (3.3)mlkg−1 at anaesthesia level I to 17.7 (3.9)mlkg−1 at level II (P < 0.0001). At the same time, mean (sd) LCI increased from 10.4 (1.1) to 11.9 (2.2) (P = 0.0038), whereas bispectral index score values decreased from mean (sd) 57.5 (7.2) to 35.5 (5.9) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Propofol elicited a deeper level of anaesthesia that led to a significant decrease of the FRC whereas at the same time the LCI, an index for ventilation distribution, increased indicating an increased vulnerability to hypoxaemi

    Antenatal Determinants of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Late Respiratory Disease in Preterm Infants

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    RATIONALE: Mechanisms contributing to chronic lung disease after preterm birth are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: To identify antenatal risk factors associated with increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and respiratory disease during early childhood after preterm birth, we performed a prospective, longitudinal study of 587 preterm infants with gestational age less than 34 weeks and birth weights between 500 and 1,250 g. METHODS: Data collected included perinatal information and assessments during the neonatal intensive care unit admission and longitudinal follow-up by questionnaire until 2 years of age. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After adjusting for covariates, we found that maternal smoking prior to preterm birth increased the odds of having an infant with BPD by twofold (P = 0.02). Maternal smoking was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and respiratory support during the neonatal intensive care unit admission. Preexisting hypertension was associated with a twofold (P = 0.04) increase in odds for BPD. Lower gestational age and birth weight z-scores were associated with BPD. Preterm infants who were exposed to maternal smoking had higher rates of late respiratory disease during childhood. Twenty-two percent of infants diagnosed with BPD and 34% of preterm infants without BPD had no clinical signs of late respiratory disease during early childhood. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that maternal smoking and hypertension increase the odds for developing BPD after preterm birth, and that maternal smoking is strongly associated with increased odds for late respiratory morbidities during early childhood. These findings suggest that in addition to the BPD diagnosis at 36 weeks, other factors modulate late respiratory outcomes during childhood. We speculate that measures to reduce maternal smoking not only will lower the risk for preterm birth but also will improve late respiratory morbidities after preterm birth

    An advanced sheep (Ovis aries, 2n = 54) cytogenetic map and assignment of 88 new autosomal loci by fluorescence in situ hybridization and R-banding

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    Presented herein is an updated sheep cytogenetic map that contains 452 loci (291 type I and 161 type II) assigned to specific chromosome bands or regions on standard R-banded ideograms. This map, which significantly extends our knowledge of the physical organization of the ovine genome, includes new assignments for 88 autosomal loci, including 74 type I loci (known genes) and 14 type II loci (SSRs/microsatellite marker/STSs), by FISH-mapping and R-banding. Comparison of the ovine map to the cattle and goat cytogenetic maps showed that common loci were located within homologous chromosomes and chromosome bands, confirming the high level of conservation of autosomes among ruminant species. Eleven loci that were FISH-mapped in sheep (B3GAT2, ASCC3, RARSL, BRD2, POLR1C, PPP2R5D, TNRC5, BAT2, BAT4, CDC5L and OLA-DRA) are unassigned in cattle and goat. Eleven other loci (D3S32, D1S86, BMS2621, SFXN5, D5S3, D5S68, CSKB1, D7S49, D9S15, D9S55 and D29S35) were assigned to specific ovine chromosome (OAR) bands but have only been assigned to chromosomes in cattle and goat

    Qualitative evaluation of a deferred consent process in paediatric emergency research: a PREDICT study

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    Background: A challenge of conducting research in critically ill children is that the therapeutic window for the intervention may be too short to seek informed consent prior to enrolment. In specific circumstances, most international ethical guidelines allow for children to be enrolled in research with informed consent obtained later, termed deferred consent (DC) or retrospective consent. There is a paucity of data on the attitudes of parents to this method of enrolment in paediatric emergency research. Objectives: To explore the attitudes of parents to the concept of DC and to expand the knowledge of the limitations to informed consent and DC in these situations.MethodChildren presenting with uncomplicated febrile seizures or bronchiolitis were identified from three separate hospital emergency department databases. Parents were invited to participate in a semistructured telephone interview exploring themes of limitations of prospective informed consent, acceptability of the DC process and the most appropriate time to seek DC. Transcripts underwent inductive thematic analysis with intercoder agreement, using Nvivo 11 software. Results: A total of 39 interviews were conducted. Participants comprehended the limitations of informed consent under emergency circumstances and were generally supportive of DC. However, they frequently confused concepts of clinical care and research, and support for participation was commonly linked to their belief of personal benefit. Conclusion: Participants acknowledged the requirement for alternatives to prospective informed consent in emergency research, and were supportive of the concept of DC. Our results suggest that current research practice seems to align with community expectations.</jats:sec
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