281 research outputs found

    Kerr black hole lensing for generic observers in the strong deflection limit

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    We generalize our previous work on gravitational lensing by a Kerr black hole in the strong deflection limit, removing the restriction to observers on the equatorial plane. Starting from the Schwarzschild solution and adding corrections up to the second order in the black hole spin, we perform a complete analytical study of the lens equation for relativistic images created by photons passing very close to a Kerr black hole. We find out that, to the lowest order, all observables (including shape and shift of the black hole shadow, caustic drift and size, images position and magnification) depend on the projection of the spin on a plane orthogonal to the line of sight. In order to break the degeneracy between the black hole spin and its inclination relative to the observer, it is necessary to push the expansion to higher orders. In terms of future VLBI observations, this implies that very accurate measures are needed to determine these two parameters separately.Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures, one section added, to appear on Physical Review

    PGM-Free Biomass-Derived Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction in Energy Conversion Devices: Promising Materials

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    Biomass is a low-cost, abundant and renewable resource that can be used to manufacture porous carbon-based materials for a variety of applications. Different mesoporous carbon supports can be obtained from the various synthetic approaches that are aimed at increasing the specific surface area and functionalization. Currently, most of the biomass is used for energy recovery. The circular economy approach could lead to the development of cheap and sustainable materials, and turning of wastes into a precious resource. In this review, we provide the recent advances in the field of electrochemistry for porous carbon materials derived from biomass, which offers wider applications in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) and Zn-air batteries (ZABs). The focus is on understanding the required properties of the materials and the role of synthetic pathways in platinum group metal (PGM) free electrocatalysts. The most promising materials are evaluated towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in PEMFC, AEMFC, and ZAB. The results achieved showed that the expected performances on these energy conversion devices still lack for deployment in practice, especially if compared with commercially available PGM-free electrocatalysts. This review article provides insights on how to improve the actual electrocatalytic activity of biomass-derived materials. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.
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