71 research outputs found

    Body composition and lung cancer-associated cachexia in TRACERx

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    Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in individuals with non-small cell lung cancer. Key features of CAC include alterations in body composition and body weight. Here, we explore the association between body composition and body weight with survival and delineate potential biological processes and mediators that contribute to the development of CAC. Computed tomography-based body composition analysis of 651 individuals in the TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through therapy (Rx)) study suggested that individuals in the bottom 20th percentile of the distribution of skeletal muscle or adipose tissue area at the time of lung cancer diagnosis, had significantly shorter lung cancer-specific survival and overall survival. This finding was validated in 420 individuals in the independent Boston Lung Cancer Study. Individuals classified as having developed CAC according to one or more features at relapse encompassing loss of adipose or muscle tissue, or body mass index-adjusted weight loss were found to have distinct tumor genomic and transcriptomic profiles compared with individuals who did not develop such features. Primary non-small cell lung cancers from individuals who developed CAC were characterized by enrichment of inflammatory signaling and epithelial–mesenchymal transitional pathways, and differentially expressed genes upregulated in these tumors included cancer-testis antigen MAGEA6 and matrix metalloproteinases, such as ADAMTS3. In an exploratory proteomic analysis of circulating putative mediators of cachexia performed in a subset of 110 individuals from TRACERx, a significant association between circulating GDF15 and loss of body weight, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was identified at relapse, supporting the potential therapeutic relevance of targeting GDF15 in the management of CAC

    SARS-CoV-2 vaccination modelling for safe surgery to save lives: data from an international prospective cohort study

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    Background: Preoperative SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could support safer elective surgery. Vaccine numbers are limited so this study aimed to inform their prioritization by modelling. Methods: The primary outcome was the number needed to vaccinate (NNV) to prevent one COVID-19-related death in 1 year. NNVs were based on postoperative SARS-CoV-2 rates and mortality in an international cohort study (surgical patients), and community SARS-CoV-2 incidence and case fatality data (general population). NNV estimates were stratified by age (18-49, 50-69, 70 or more years) and type of surgery. Best- and worst-case scenarios were used to describe uncertainty. Results: NNVs were more favourable in surgical patients than the general population. The most favourable NNVs were in patients aged 70 years or more needing cancer surgery (351; best case 196, worst case 816) or non-cancer surgery (733; best case 407, worst case 1664). Both exceeded the NNV in the general population (1840; best case 1196, worst case 3066). NNVs for surgical patients remained favourable at a range of SARS-CoV-2 incidence rates in sensitivity analysis modelling. Globally, prioritizing preoperative vaccination of patients needing elective surgery ahead of the general population could prevent an additional 58 687 (best case 115 007, worst case 20 177) COVID-19-related deaths in 1 year. Conclusion: As global roll out of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination proceeds, patients needing elective surgery should be prioritized ahead of the general population
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