156 research outputs found

    Focal Surface Projection: Extending Projector Depth-of-Field Using a Phase-Only Spatial Light Modulator

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    We present a focal surface projection to solve the narrow depth-of-field problem in projection mapping applications. We apply a phase-only spatial light modulator to realize nonuniform focusing distances, whereby the projected contents appear focused on a surface with considerable depth variations. The feasibility of the proposed technique was validated through a physical experiment

    Effect Of Epa Ethyl Ester On Fatty Acid Profile In Hemodialysis Patients With Low Epa/Aa Ratio

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    BackgroundLarge amounts of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to lower the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE). Serum eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) / arachidonic acid (AA) ratio may potentially be a predictor of CVE which is the most common cause of death in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Therefore, we estimated the effect of EPA ethyl ester on fatty acid profile in HD patients.Subjects & MethodsFatty acid profile and high sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) were measured in 131 patients receiving maintenance HD. Among these, 64 patients (F:M=25:39) with both low EPA/AA ratio (≦0.4) and negative CRP were enrolled in this randomized study (Group A, EPA administrated group, n=30; Group B, EPA non-administrated group, n=34). The mean age of the patients was 66.5 ± 11.9 years old and the duration of HD was 8.4 ± 7.9 years. The serum levels of EPA, AA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and dihomogammalinolenic acid (DHL-A) were measured by gas chromatography (SRL, Tokyo, Japan).ResultsThe mean levels of EPA/AA ratio, DHA/AA ratio, DHL-A, non HDL-C and GNRI (Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index) were 0.28±0.13, 0.62±0.15, 22.7±8.4 μg/ml, 112.2±31.0 mg/dl and 93.6±5.5, respectively. After one month of treatment with EPA in group A, EPA/AA ratio was significantly increased (0.30±0.15 vs. 0.95±0.45, p<0.0001) and DHL-A significantly decreased (22.7±7.4 vs. 15.7±6.8, p= 0.0003), but DHA/AA ratio, serum non HDL-C and phosphate levels did not change. EPA/AA ratio was significantly higher and DHL-A lower in group A compared with group B after one month of the start of study.ConclusionsMedication of EPA for one month increases EPA/AA ratio, and decreases DHL-A level without the change of serum phosphate level in HD patients with low EPA/AA ratio

    Curcumin β-D-Glucuronide Modulates an Autoimmune Model of Multiple Sclerosis with Altered Gut Microbiota in the Ileum and Feces

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    ウコンに含まれる成分が腸内フローラを介して脳・脊髄の炎症を抑制 --プロドラッグ型「クルクミン」の多発性硬化症治療への応用に期待--. 京都大学プレスリリース. 2021-12-03.We developed a prodrug type of curcumin, curcumin monoglucuronide (CMG), whose intravenous/intraperitoneal injection achieves a high serum concentration of free-form curcumin. Although curcumin has been reported to alter the gut microbiota and immune responses, it is unclear whether the altered microbiota could be associated with inflammation in immune-mediated diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). We aimed to determine whether CMG administration could affect the gut microbiota at three anatomical sites (feces, ileal contents, and the ileal mucosa), leading to suppression of inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) in an autoimmune model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We injected EAE mice with CMG, harvested the brains and spinal cords for histological analyses, and conducted microbiome analyses using 16S rRNA sequencing. CMG administration modulated EAE clinically and histologically, and altered overall microbiota compositions in feces and ileal contents, but not the ileal mucosa. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the microbiome showed that principal component (PC) 1 values in ileal contents, but not in feces, correlated with the clinical and histological EAE scores. On the other hand, when we analyzed the individual bacteria of the microbiota, the EAE scores correlated with significant increases in the relative abundance of two bacterial species at each anatomical site: Ruminococcus bromii and Blautia (Ruminococcus) gnavus in feces, Turicibacter sp. and Alistipes finegoldii in ileal contents, and Burkholderia spp. and Azoarcus spp. in the ileal mucosa. Therefore, CMG administration could alter the gut microbiota at the three different sites differentially in not only the overall gut microbiome compositions but also the abundance of individual bacteria, each of which was associated with modulation of neuroinflammation

    Protocol for Genome Editing to Produce Multiple Mutants in Wheat

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    Here, we describe a protocol for producing multiple recessive mutants via genome editing in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Fielder. Using Agrobacterium-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 and three sub-genome-specific primer sets, all possible combinations of single, double, and triple transgene-free mutants can be generated. The technique for acceleration of generation advancement with embryo culture reduces time for mutant production. The mutants produced by this protocol can be used for the analysis of gene function and crop improvement. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Abe et al. (2019)

    Chromosome-scale genome assembly of the transformation-amenable common wheat cultivar ‘Fielder’

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    We have established a high-quality, chromosome-level genome assembly for the hexaploid common wheat cultivar ‘Fielder’, an American, soft, white, pastry-type wheat released in 1974 and known for its amenability to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and genome editing. Accurate, long-read sequences were obtained using PacBio circular consensus sequencing with the HiFi approach. Sequence reads from 16 SMRT cells assembled using the hifiasm assembler produced assemblies with N50 greater than 20 Mb. We used the Omni-C chromosome conformation capture technique to order contigs into chromosome-level assemblies, resulting in 21 pseudomolecules with a cumulative size of 14.7 and 0.3 Gb of unanchored contigs. Mapping of published short reads from a transgenic wheat plant with an edited seed-dormancy gene, TaQsd1, identified four positions of transgene insertion into wheat chromosomes. Detection of guide RNA sequences in pseudomolecules provided candidates for off-target mutation induction. These results demonstrate the efficiency of chromosome-scale assembly using PacBio HiFi reads and their application in wheat genome-editing studies

    Initial In-Orbit Operation Result of Microsatellite HIBARI: Attitude Control by Driving Solar Array Paddles

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    We have developed a 50kg class microsatellite HIBARI . The mission of this satellite is to demonstrate a novel attitude control method for microsatellites which is called “Variable Shape Attitude Control (VSAC).” VSAC is a method using anti-torque by driving variable shape structures. HIBARI has four drivable solar array paddles, and will demonstrate VSAC. The development of HIBARI began in 2019, and it was injected into orbit in November 2021 under the Innovative Satellite Technology Demonstration Program led by JAXA. Currently, HIBARI has completed its critical phase and paddle deployment phase, and is conducting paddle drive experiments in orbit. In paddle drive experiments, the paddles are driven according to the command values, and the accompanying attitude change is confirmed. These results indicate that the satellite can generate angular velocities of 4 deg/s or more and achieve the target agile maneuver of 30deg in 10seconds, which is comparable to that of CMG for microsatellite

    The Late Phase/Early Phase Ratio of Pancreatic CT Values as a Novel Predictor of Pancreatic Fistula after Distal Pancreatectomy

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    Post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains the most common complication after distal pancreatectomy (DP). In this retrospective study, we reviewed the data from patients who underwent DP between 2008 and 2019 in our institute to determine whether the late phase/early phase ratio (L/E ratio) by preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan in the pancreas could predict POPF occurrence after DP. We examined the relationship between preoperative or intraoperative factors and the occurrence of POPF after DP using statistical methods in 23 males and 21 females with a mean age of 73. The mean L/E ratio was significantly lower in the POPF group than the non-POPF group (p=0.035). The L/E ratio had moderate diagnostic accuracy, with a calculated optimal cutoff value of 0.77. In univariate analysis, a significant association was noted between POPF and stump thickness ≥ 16.9, body mass index ≥ 27.5, and L/E ratio ≤ 0.77. In the multivariate analysis, the L/E ratio (odds ratio, 5.96; p=0.036) was an independent risk factor for POPF. Our findings suggest that the pancreatic L/E ratio may predict the occurrence of POPF after DP. This measure may be useful in preoperative risk stratification, patient counseling, and perioperative patient management, improving clinical outcomes after DP

    Bioinformatics Analyses Determined the Distinct CNS and Peripheral Surrogate Biomarker Candidates Between Two Mouse Models for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

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    Previously, we have established two distinct progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) models by induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in two mouse strains. A.SW mice develop ataxia with antibody deposition, but no T cell infiltration, in the central nervous system (CNS), while SJL/J mice develop paralysis with CNS T cell infiltration. In this study, we determined biomarkers contributing to the homogeneity and heterogeneity of two models. Using the CNS and spleen microarray transcriptome and cytokine data, we conducted computational analyses. We identified up-regulation of immune-related genes, including immunoglobulins, in the CNS of both models. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17, were associated with the disease progression in SJL/J mice, while the expression of both cytokines was detected only at the EAE onset in A.SW mice. Principal component analysis (PCA) of CNS transcriptome data demonstrated that down-regulation of prolactin may reflect disease progression. Pattern matching analysis of spleen transcriptome with CNS PCA identified 333 splenic surrogate markers, including Stfa2l1, which reflected the changes in the CNS. Among them, we found that two genes (PER1/MIR6883 and FKBP5) and one gene (SLC16A1/MCT1) were also significantly up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, in human MS peripheral blood, using data mining