1,703 research outputs found

    Circadian rhythms and memory formation: regulation by chromatin remodeling

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    Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, can remodel the chromatin and regulate gene expression. Remodeling of chromatin provides an efficient mechanism of transducing signals, such as light or nutrient availability, to regulate gene expression. CLOCK:BMAL1 mediated activation of clock-controlled genes (CCGs) is coupled to circadian changes in histone modification at their promoters. Several chromatin modifiers, such as the deacetylases SIRT1 and HDAC3 or methyltransferase MLL1, have been shown to be recruited to the promoters of the CCGs in a circadian manner. Interestingly, the central element of the core clock machinery, the transcription factor CLOCK, also possesses histone acetyltransferase activity. Rhythmic expression of the CCGs is abolished in the absence of these chromatin modifiers. Recent research has demonstrated that chromatin remodeling is at the cross-roads of circadian rhythms and regulation of metabolism and aging. It would be of interest to identify if similar pathways exist in the epigenetic regulation of memory formation

    p75 neurotrophin receptor is a clock gene that regulates oscillatory components of circadian and metabolic networks.

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    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with a widespread pattern of expression in tissues such as the brain, liver, lung, and muscle. The mechanisms that regulate p75(NTR) transcription in the nervous system and its expression in other tissues remain largely unknown. Here we show that p75(NTR) is an oscillating gene regulated by the helix-loop-helix transcription factors CLOCK and BMAL1. The p75(NTR) promoter contains evolutionarily conserved noncanonical E-box enhancers. Deletion mutagenesis of the p75(NTR)-luciferase reporter identified the -1039 conserved E-box necessary for the regulation of p75(NTR) by CLOCK and BMAL1. Accordingly, gel-shift assays confirmed the binding of CLOCK and BMAL1 to the p75(NTR-)1039 E-box. Studies in mice revealed that p75(NTR) transcription oscillates during dark and light cycles not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), but also in peripheral tissues including the liver. Oscillation of p75(NTR) is disrupted in Clock-deficient and mutant mice, is E-box dependent, and is in phase with clock genes, such as Per1 and Per2. Intriguingly, p75(NTR) is required for circadian clock oscillation, since loss of p75(NTR) alters the circadian oscillation of clock genes in the SCN, liver, and fibroblasts. Consistent with this, Per2::Luc/p75(NTR-/-) liver explants showed reduced circadian oscillation amplitude compared with those of Per2::Luc/p75(NTR+/+). Moreover, deletion of p75(NTR) also alters the circadian oscillation of glucose and lipid homeostasis genes. Overall, our findings reveal that the transcriptional activation of p75(NTR) is under circadian regulation in the nervous system and peripheral tissues, and plays an important role in the maintenance of clock and metabolic gene oscillation

    Fhl5/Act, a CREM-binding transcriptional activator required for normal sperm maturation and morphology, is not essential for testicular gene expression

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The LIM domain protein Fhl5 was previously found to interact with CREM, a DNA binding transcriptional regulator necessary for spermiogenesis in mammals. Co-transfection experiments using heterologous promoter constructs indicated a role for Fhl5 in transcriptional up-regulation of CREM-dependent testicular genes. Male mice lacking Fhl5 were reported to be fertile but displayed partially abnormal sperm maturation and morphology.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>To identify Fhl5 testicular target genes we carried out two whole-genome expression profiling experiments using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and total testis samples from Fhl5 wild-type versus homozygous mutant mice first in different and then in isogenic strain backgrounds.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Weak signal differences were detected in non-isogenic samples but no statistically significant expression changes were observed when isogenic Fhl5 mutant and wild-type samples were compared.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The outcome of these experiments suggests that testicular expression profiling is extremely sensitive to the genetic background and that Fhl5 is not essential for testicular gene expression to a level detected by microarray-based measurements. This might be due to redundant function of the related and similarly expressed protein Fhl4.</p

    Altered behavioral and metabolic circadian rhythms in mice with disrupted NAD+ oscillation

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    The Intracellular levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) are rhythmic and controlled by the circadian clock. However, whether NAD+ oscillation in turn contributes to circadian physiology is not fully understood. To address this question we analyzed mice mutated for the NAD+ hydrolase CD38. We found that rhythmicity of NAD+ was altered in the CD38-deficient mice. The high, chronic levels of NAD+ results in several anomalies in circadian behavior and metabolism. CD38-null mice display a shortened period length of locomotor activity and alteration in the rest-activity rhythm. Several clock genes and, interestingly, genes involved in amino acid metabolism were deregulated in CD38-null livers. Metabolomic analysis identified alterations in the circadian levels of several amino acids, specifically tryptophan levels were reduced in the CD38-null mice at a circadian time paralleling with elevated NAD+ levels. Thus, CD38 contributes to behavioral and metabolic circadian rhythms and altered NAD+ levels influence the circadian clock

    Circadian rhythmic kinase CK2&#x3b1; phosphorylates BMAL1 to regulate the mammalian clock

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    Clock proteins govern circadian physiology and their function is regulated by a variety of signaling pathways. Here, we show that p45^PFK^, a previously reported circadian rhythmic kinase, corresponds to CK2[alpha]. Rhythmic phosphorylation of the core clock protein BMAL1 by CK2[alpha] occurs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the mammalian central pacemaker. Circadian BMAL1 phosphorylation controls its nucleocytoplasmic localization. Gene silencing for CK2[alpha] and BMAL1 mutagenesis of a highly conserved CK2 phosphorylation site (Ser 90) result in impaired BMAL1 accumulation in the nucleus and subsequent disruption of clock function. These findings reveal that circadian rhythmic kinase CK2 is an essential regulator of the mammalian circadian system

    Lung Adenocarcinoma Distally Rewires Hepatic Circadian Homeostasis

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    The circadian clock controls metabolic and physiological processes through finely tuned molecular mechanisms. The clock is remarkably plastic and adapts to exogenous "zeitgebers," such as light and nutrition. How a pathological condition in a given tissue influences systemic circadian homeostasis in other tissues remains an unanswered question of conceptual and biomedical importance. Here, we show that lung adenocarcinoma operates as an endogenous reorganizer of circadian metabolism. High-throughput transcriptomics and metabolomics revealed unique signatures of transcripts and metabolites cycling exclusively in livers of tumor-bearing mice. Remarkably, lung cancer has no effect on the core clock but rather reprograms hepatic metabolism through altered pro-inflammatory response via the STAT3-Socs3 pathway. This results in disruption of AKT, AMPK, and SREBP signaling, leading to altered insulin, glucose, and lipid metabolism. Thus, lung adenocarcinoma functions as a potent endogenous circadian organizer (ECO), which rewires the pathophysiological dimension of a distal tissue such as the liver