769 research outputs found

    NanoNewton electrostatic force actuators for femtoNewton-sensitive measurements: system performance test in the LISA Pathfinder mission

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    International audienceElectrostatic force actuation is a key component of the system of geodesic reference test masses (TM) for the LISA orbiting gravitational wave observatory and in particular for performance at low frequencies, below 1 mHz, where the observatory sensitivity is limited by stray force noise. The system needs to apply forces of order 10‚ąí9^{-9} N while limiting fluctuations in the measurement band to levels approaching 10‚ąí15^{-15} N/Hz1/2^{1/2}. We present here the LISA actuation system design, based on audio-frequency voltage carrier signals, and results of its in-flight performance test with the LISA Pathfinder test mission. In LISA, TM force actuation is used to align the otherwise free-falling TM to the spacecraft-mounted optical metrology system, without any forcing along the critical gravitational wave-sensitive interferometry axes. In LISA Pathfinder, on the other hand, the actuation was used also to stabilize the TM along the critical xx axis joining the two TM, with the commanded actuation force entering directly into the mission's main differential acceleration science observable. The mission allowed demonstration of the full compatibility of the electrostatic actuation system with the LISA observatory requirements, including dedicated measurement campaigns to amplify, isolate, and quantify the two main force noise contributions from the actuation system, from actuator gain noise and from low frequency ``in band'' voltage fluctuations. These campaigns have shown actuation force noise to be a relevant, but not dominant, noise source in LISA Pathfinder and have allowed performance projections for the conditions expected in the LISA mission

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

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    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    Shortwave and longwave components of the surface radiation budget measured at the Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory, Northern Greenland

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    The Arctic climate is influenced by the interaction of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation with the atmosphere and the surface. The comprehensive evolution of the Surface Radiative Fluxes (SRF) on different time scales is of paramount importance to understanding the complex mechanisms governing the Arctic climate. However, only a few sites located in the Arctic region provide long-term time series of SRF allowing for capturing of the seasonality of atmospheric and surface parameters and for carrying out validation of satellite products and/or reanalyses. This paper presents the daily and monthly SRF record collected at the Thule High Arctic Atmospheric Observatory (THAAO, 76.5‚ąė‚ÄČN, 68.8‚ąė‚ÄČW), in North-Western Greenland. The downwelling components of the SW (DSI) and the LW (DLI) irradiances have been measured at THAAO since 2009, whereas the collection of the upwelling SW (USI) and LW (ULI) irradiance was started in 2016, together with additional measurements, such as meteorological parameters and column water vapour. The datasets of DSI (Meloni et al., 2022a; https://doi.org/10.13127/thaao/dsi), USI (Meloni et al., 2022b; https://doi.org/10.13127/thaao/usi), DLI (Meloni et al., 2022c; https://doi.org/10.13127/thaao/dli), ULI (Meloni et al., 2022d; https://doi.org/10.13127/thaao/uli), and near-surface air temperature (Muscari et al., 2018; https://doi.org/10.13127/thaao/met), can be accessed through the THAAO web site (https://www.thuleatmos-it.it/data, last access: 16¬†January¬†2024). The DSI is absent (solar zenith angle ‚Č•90‚ąė) from 29¬†October to 13¬†February, assuming maxima in June (monthly mean of 277.0‚ÄČWm‚ąí2), when it is about half of the total incoming irradiance. The USI maximum occurs in May (132.4‚ÄČWm‚ąí2) owing to the combination of moderately high DSI values and high albedo. The shortwave surface albedo (A) assumes an average of 0.16 during summer, when the surface is free of snow. Differently, during months of snow-covered surface, when solar radiation allows A to be estimated, its values are greater than 0.6. A large interannual variability is observed in May and September, months characterized by rapidly changing surface conditions, having a link with air temperature anomalies. The DLI and ULI maxima occur in July and August, and the minima in February and March. ULI is always larger than DLI and shows a wider annual cycle. ULI is well described by a fourth-order polynomial fit to the air temperature (R2&gt;0.99 for monthly data and R2&gt;0.97 for daily data). The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) is positive from April to August, when absorption of solar radiation exceeds the infrared net cooling, with a maximum value of 153.2‚ÄČWm‚ąí2 in June. From November to February, during the polar night, the LW net flux varies between ‚ąí34.5 and ‚ąí43.0‚ÄČWm‚ąí2. In March and September, the negative LW net flux overcomes the positive SW contribution, producing a negative SRB. The THAAO measurements show clear evidence of the influence of several regional weather/climate events, that appear strongly linked with SRF anomalies. These anomalies were found, for example, during summer 2012, when a large ice melting event took place over Greenland, and during winter 2019‚Äď2020, which was extraordinarily cold in the Arctic region.</p

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report

    No full text
    International audienceDUNE is an international experiment dedicated to addressing some of the questions at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics, including the mystifying preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early universe. The dual-site experiment will employ an intense neutrino beam focused on a near and a far detector as it aims to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make high-precision measurements of the PMNS matrix parameters, including the CP-violating phase. It will also stand ready to observe supernova neutrino bursts, and seeks to observe nucleon decay as a signature of a grand unified theory underlying the standard model. The DUNE far detector implements liquid argon time-projection chamber (LArTPC) technology, and combines the many tens-of-kiloton fiducial mass necessary for rare event searches with the sub-centimeter spatial resolution required to image those events with high precision. The addition of a photon detection system enhances physics capabilities for all DUNE physics drivers and opens prospects for further physics explorations. Given its size, the far detector will be implemented as a set of modules, with LArTPC designs that differ from one another as newer technologies arise. In the vertical drift LArTPC design, a horizontal cathode bisects the detector, creating two stacked drift volumes in which ionization charges drift towards anodes at either the top or bottom. The anodes are composed of perforated PCB layers with conductive strips, enabling reconstruction in 3D. Light-trap-style photon detection modules are placed both on the cryostat's side walls and on the central cathode where they are optically powered. This Technical Design Report describes in detail the technical implementations of each subsystem of this LArTPC that, together with the other far detector modules and the near detector, will enable DUNE to achieve its physics goals

    The DUNE Far Detector Vertical Drift Technology, Technical Design Report