148 research outputs found

    Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

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    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function

    Sec35p, a Novel Peripheral Membrane Protein, Is Required for ER to Golgi Vesicle Docking

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    SEC35 was identified in a novel screen for temperature-sensitive mutants in the secretory pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Wuestehube et al., 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). At the restrictive temperature, the sec35-1 strain exhibits a transport block between the ER and the Golgi apparatus and accumulates numerous vesicles. SEC35 encodes a novel cytosolic protein of 32 kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec35-1 is efficiently suppressed by YPT1, which encodes the rab-like GTPase required early in the secretory pathway, or by SLY1-20, which encodes a dominant form of the ER to Golgi target -SNARE–associated protein Sly1p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle-SNAREs SEC22, BET1, or YKT6. The cold-sensitive lethality that results from deleting SEC35 is suppressed by YPT1 or SLY1-20. These genetic relationships suggest that Sec35p acts upstream of, or in conjunction with, Ypt1p and Sly1p as was previously found for Uso1p. Using a cell-free assay that measures distinct steps in vesicle transport from the ER to the Golgi, we find Sec35p is required for a vesicle docking stage catalyzed by Uso1p. These genetic and biochemical results suggest Sec35p acts with Uso1p to dock ER-derived vesicles to the Golgi complex

    Sec34p, a Protein Required for Vesicle Tethering to the Yeast Golgi Apparatus, Is in a Complex with Sec35p

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    A screen for mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretory pathway components previously yielded sec34, a mutant that accumulates numerous vesicles and fails to transport proteins from the ER to the Golgi complex at the restrictive temperature (Wuestehube, L.J., R. Duden, A. Eun, S. Hamamoto, P. Korn, R. Ram, and R. Schekman. 1996. Genetics. 142:393–406). We find that SEC34 encodes a novel protein of 93-kD, peripherally associated with membranes. The temperature-sensitive phenotype of sec34-2 is suppressed by the rab GTPase Ypt1p that functions early in the secretory pathway, or by the dominant form of the ER to Golgi complex target-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor)–associated protein Sly1p, Sly1-20p. Weaker suppression is evident upon overexpression of genes encoding the vesicle tethering factor Uso1p or the vesicle-SNAREs Sec22p, Bet1p, or Ykt6p. This genetic suppression profile is similar to that of sec35-1, a mutant allele of a gene encoding an ER to Golgi vesicle tethering factor and, like Sec35p, Sec34p is required in vitro for vesicle tethering. sec34-2 and sec35-1 display a synthetic lethal interaction, a genetic result explained by the finding that Sec34p and Sec35p can interact by two-hybrid analysis. Fractionation of yeast cytosol indicates that Sec34p and Sec35p exist in an ∼750-kD protein complex. Finally, we describe RUD3, a novel gene identified through a genetic screen for multicopy suppressors of a mutation in USO1, which suppresses the sec34-2 mutation as well

    Docking of Yeast Vacuoles Is Catalyzed by the Ras-like GTPase Ypt7p after Symmetric Priming by Sec18p (NSF)

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    Vacuole inheritance in yeast involves the formation of tubular and vesicular “segregation structures” which migrate into the bud and fuse there to establish the daughter cell vacuole. Vacuole fusion has been reconstituted in vitro and may be used as a model for an NSF-dependent reaction of priming, docking, and fusion. We have developed biochemical and microscopic assays for the docking step of in vitro vacuole fusion and characterized its requirements. The vacuoles must be primed for docking by the action of Sec17p (α-SNAP) and Sec18p (NSF). Priming is necessary for both fusion partners. It produces a labile state which requires rapid docking in order to lead productively to fusion. In addition to Sec17p/Sec18p, docking requires the activity of the Ras-like GTPase Ypt7p. Unlike Sec17p/Sec18p, which must act before docking, Ypt7p is directly involved in the docking process itself

    Identifying a novel functional domain within the p115 tethering factor required for Golgi ribbon assembly and membrane trafficking

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    The tethering factor p115 has been shown to facilitate Golgi biogenesis and membrane traffic in cells in culture. However, the role of p115 within an intact animal is largely unknown. Here, we document that RNAi-mediated depletion of p115 in C. elegans causes accumulation of the yolk protein (YP170) in body cavity and the retention of the yolk receptor RME-2 in the ER and the Golgi within oocytes.Structure-function analyses of p115 have identified two homology (H1-2) regions within the N-terminal globular head and the coiled-coil 1 (CC1) domain as essential for p115 function. We identify a novel C-terminal domain of p115 as necessary for Golgi ribbon formation and cargo trafficking. We show that p115 mutants lacking the fourth CC domain (CC4) act in a dominant negative manner to disrupt Golgi and prevent cargo trafficking in cells containing endogenous p115. Furthermore, using RNAi-mediated "replacement" strategy we show that CC4 is necessary for Golgi ribbon formation and membrane trafficking in cells depleted of endogenous p115.p115 has been shown to bind a subset of ER-Golgi SNAREs through CC1 and CC4 domains (Shorter et al., 2002). Our findings show that CC4 is required for p115 function and suggest that both the CC1 and the CC4 SNARE-binding motifs may participate in p115-mediated membrane tethering

    Two Human ARFGAPs Associated with COP-I-Coated Vesicles

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    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are critical regulators of vesicular trafficking pathways and act at multiple intracellular sites. ADP-ribosylation factor-GTPase-activating proteins (ARFGAPs) are proposed to contribute to site-specific regulation. In yeast, two distinct proteins, Glo3p and Gcs1p, together provide overlapping, essential ARFGAP function required for coat protein (COP)-I-dependent trafficking. In mammalian cells, only the Gcs1p orthologue, named ARFGAP1, has been characterized in detail. However, Glo3p is known to make the stronger contribution to COP I traffic in yeast. Here, based on a conserved signature motif close to the carboxy terminus, we identify ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 as the human orthologues of yeast Glo3p. By immunofluorescence (IF), ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 are closely colocalized with coatomer subunits in NRK cells in the Golgi complex and peripheral punctate structures. In contrast to ARFGAP1, both ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 are associated with COP-I-coated vesicles generated from Golgi membranes in the presence of GTP-γ-S in vitro. ARFGAP2 lacking its zinc finger domain directly binds to coatomer. Expression of this truncated mutant (ΔN-ARFGAP2) inhibits COP-I-dependent Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum transport of cholera toxin (CTX-K63) in vivo. Silencing of ARFGAP1 or a combination of ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 in HeLa cells does not decrease cell viability. However, silencing all three ARFGAPs causes cell death. Our data provide strong evidence that ARFGAP2 and ARFGAP3 function in COP I traffic

    A Vacuolar v–t-SNARE Complex, the Predominant Form In Vivo and on Isolated Vacuoles, Is Disassembled and Activated for Docking and Fusion

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    Homotypic vacuole fusion in yeast requires Sec18p (N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive fusion protein [NSF]), Sec17p (soluble NSF attachment protein [α-SNAP]), and typical vesicle (v) and target membrane (t) SNAP receptors (SNAREs). We now report that vacuolar v- and t-SNAREs are mainly found with Sec17p as v–t-SNARE complexes in vivo and on purified vacuoles rather than only transiently forming such complexes during docking, and disrupting them upon fusion. In the priming reaction, Sec18p and ATP dissociate this v–t-SNARE complex, accompanied by the release of Sec17p. SNARE complex structure governs each functional aspect of priming, as the v-SNARE regulates the rate of Sec17p release and, in turn, Sec17p-dependent SNARE complex disassembly is required for independent function of the two SNAREs. Sec17p physically and functionally interacts largely with the t-SNARE. (a) Antibodies to the t-SNARE, but not the v-SNARE, block Sec17p release. (b) Sec17p is associated with the t-SNARE in the absence of v-SNARE, but is not bound to the v-SNARE without t-SNARE. (c) Vacuoles with t-SNARE but no v-SNARE still require Sec17p/Sec18p priming, whereas their fusion partners with v-SNARE but no t-SNARE do not. Sec18p thus acts, upon ATP hydrolysis, to disassemble the v–t-SNARE complex, prime the t-SNARE, and release the Sec17p to allow SNARE participation in docking and fusion. These studies suggest that the analogous ATP-dependent disassembly of the 20-S complex of NSF, α-SNAP, and v- and t-SNAREs, which has been studied in detergent extracts, corresponds to the priming of SNAREs for docking rather than to the fusion of docked membranes
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