92 research outputs found

    Evaluation of Growth Responses of Lettuce and Energy Efficiency of the Substrate and Smart Hydroponics Cropping System

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    Smart sensing devices enabled hydroponics, a concept of vertical farming that involves soilless technology that increases green area. Although the cultivation medium is water, hydroponic cultivation uses 13 ± 10 times less water and gives 10 ± 5 times better quality products compared with those obtained through the substrate cultivation medium. The use of smart sensing devices helps in continuous real-time monitoring of the nutrient requirements and the environmental conditions required by the crop selected for cultivation. This, in turn, helps in enhanced year-round agricultural production. In this study, lettuce, a leafy crop, is cultivated with the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) setup of hydroponics, and the growth results are compared with cultivation in a substrate medium. The leaf growth was analyzed in terms of cultivation cycle, leaf length, leaf perimeter, and leaf count in both cultivation methods, where hydroponics outperformed substrate cultivation. The results of the ‘AquaCrop simulator also showed similar results, not only qualitatively and quantitatively, but also in terms of sustainable growth and year-round production. The energy consumption of both the cultivation methods is compared, and it is found that hydroponics consumes 70 ± 11 times more energy compared to substrate cultivation. Finally, it is concluded that smart sensing devices form the backbone of precision agriculture, thereby multiplying crop yield by real-time monitoring of the agronomical variables

    Designing a mobile health smokeless tobacco cessation intervention in Odisha, India: User and provider perspectives

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    OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence on the development of mobile health (mHealth) interventions for smokeless tobacco (SLT) cessation, despite its widespread use in South Asia. This formative qualitative study explored the perceptions of tobacco users and healthcare providers (HCPs) regarding developing a mHealth intervention for SLT cessation. METHODS: This was a qualitative study using in-depth interviews (IDIs) with tobacco users (n = 26) and primary care physicians (PCPs) (n = 5) and focus group discussions (FGDs) with counsellors (n = 2) in four urban primary health centres (UPHCs) in Berhampur, Odisha from February to March 2020. The data were coded and analysed by two researchers using a framework analysis method. The discussion guides and initial codes were developed based on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behaviour change. RESULTS: The results were elaborated under four themes: (1) Current scenario of SLT use; (2) Barriers and facilitators for quitting SLT; (3) Barriers and facilitators for mHealth counselling; and (4) Design and delivery of the proposed intervention. SLT use was prevalent in the community regardless of sociodemographic factors. Peer factors accounted for both tobacco consumption as well as considering cessation. Participants considered mobile message counselling helpful and acceptable. Not having a mobile phone and illiteracy were identified as barriers while ease of access and rising popularity of social media applications were considered facilitators to the use of mHealth for quitting tobacco. Participants preferred messages that were pictorial, short and simple, in the local language, and tailored to individual's needs. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that provides evidence within the Indian context that the text messaging platform may be used for delivering an SLT cessation intervention. The integration of a theoretical basis and research findings from target users can guide future intervention development

    Interpretative Assessment of Smriti w.s.r.to Mana and Buddhi in Ayurvedic Classical Texts

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    According to WHO estimations, India has 2443 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 10,000 people who suffer from mental health issues. Also, the prevalence of age-related memory impairment was 3.6% in people 40 years of age and older, and 7.1% in people 65 years of age and older. In this world of gadgets, human beings are habitual in using devices for a lot of their work. Due to this, they are not in a habit of concentrating and memorizing things. Therefore, with time the human population keeps on losing their memory power. Many experts suggest that mentally challenging activities may help people with memory problems. Practicing yoga has also shown various health benefits, including improving memory and thus preventing memory impairment and related disorders. Numerous cognitive processes, including long-term memory, mental equilibrium, focus and concentration, attention span, processing speed, alternation ability, delayed and intermediate recall, executive function, verbal retention, and cognitive assessments are all improved by yoga

    Critical Review of Mrittika in Ayurvedic Classical Texts

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    The traditional, age-old Indian medical system known as Ayurveda encompasses a wide range of fundamental ideas. The five natural elements in the Panchmahabhautika Chikitsa Siddhanta are Prithvi (earth), Jala (water), Akasha (space), Agni (fire), and Vayu (air). All of these substances contain chemicals, minerals, and nutrients that might enhance health and are related to the potential of human life on Earth. One of these, Mrittika, is among the most crucial components and is rich in nutrients that are crucial to human health. Shothahara and Shoolhara Gunas, according to the Acharyas. It is highly helpful in treating and preventing many ailments since it can remove toxins from the human body. The Ayurvedic Samhitas provide a thorough explanation of Mrittika's exterior and interior uses under Parthiva Chikitsa. It is highly helpful in treating and preventing many ailments since it can remove toxins from the human body. This article, explains the beneficial properties of Mrittika

    Priority based k-coverage hole restoration and m-connectivity using whale optimization scheme for underwater wireless sensor networks

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    Coverage hole restoration and connectivity is a typical problem for underwater wireless sensor networks. In underwater applications like underwater oilfield reservoirs, undersea minerals and monitoring etc., where nodes face many hurdles and are unable to cover the required region during a natural disaster such as tsunami, flood, earthquakes, and environmental interference. It creates a coverage hole and consumes high energy with bad network quality. This problem considered as an NP-complete problem where a set of sensor nodes is required to identify the k-coverage hole and m-connectivity. In the literature, researchers have not focused on k-coverage hole restoration and m-connectivity issues during natural disasters and environmental interference. To mitigate this problem, we proposed priority-based coverage hole restoration and -connection using a whale optimization scheme to restore coverage holes and extract relevant information for the construction of undersea oilfield reservoirs, minerals, and mines. In this scheme, we identified the list of k-coverage holes and addressed autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to place the additional mobile nodes in an appropriate coverage hole. A novel multi-objective function is formulated to obtain the optimal path for AUVs. Furthermore, while restoring coverage holes, we checked the connectivity of nodes. In the network, each node coordinated sleep scheduling with neighbor nodes to maintain energy efficiency. Performance evaluation of the proposed scheme shows better results than the existing schemes under different network scenarios which provide maximum coverage and connectivity, less energy consumption with a high convergence rate

    A comprehensive study of the estuary sea environment in the Bay of Bengal, near the Mahanadi River confluence

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    Abstract This study focuses on the environmental conditions of the Mahanadi Estuary near Paradeep Harbor and the adjacent sea. Data collected from May 2013 to April 2020 from 32 GPS fixed stations was analyzed to assess the water quality in different zones (estuarine, mixed zone, mixed zone south, and mixed zone north) of study area. Parameters such as pH, SST, TSS, nitrite, phosphate, silicate, TOC, chlorophyll, fecal coliform, and heavy metals were used to estimate the Water Quality Index (WQI) for each zone. The study found a deterioration (> 30%) in the overall water quality of the Mahanadi Estuary from 2013 to 2020, potentially attributed to river inflows, port activities, and industrial outflows in to the coastal ecosystem. Seasonal variations in temperature, salinity, turbidity, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia were observed. The water quality showed a deteriorating trend in estuarine, mixed zone, mixed zone south, and mixed zone north. Based on the water quality indices, the ecosystem shows moderate levels of stress. The degraded water quality highlights the need for a targeted mitigation plan to reduce external pressures and enhance the overall ecosystem quality. Graphical Abstrac

    Secondary metabolite induced tolerance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense TR4 in banana cv. Grand Naine through in vitro bio-immunization: a prospective research translation from induction to field tolerance

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    An innovative tissue culture mediated incorporation of metabolite-based biomolecule (Bio-immune) at in vitro stage itself in banana cv. Grand Naine was developed and validated for the production of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense TR4 tolerant plantlets. The novel bio-immune formulation developed by us, exhibited a significant antifungal potency against Foc TR4 with a high percent inhibition (100%) at a 2.5% concentration of bio-immune on the 5th, 7th, and 9th DAI. Bio-immune integrated during in vitro shoot proliferation stage in banana cv. Grand Naine recorded significant enhancement in the growth of roots and shoots. Bio-immune (0.5%) fortified media produced 12.67 shoots per clump whereas control registered only 9.67 shoots per clump. Similarly, maximum root numbers (7.67) were observed in bio-immune plants which were significantly higher over control (5.0). The bio-immunized banana transplants recorded a higher survival rate (97.57%) during acclimatization as compared to the control (94.53%). Furthermore, evaluation of the bio-immunized plants in pot experiments revealed that unimmunized plants treated with FocTR4 (TF) exhibited mortality between 60 and 90 days. On the 90th day after planting, a high mean disease severity index (DSI) of 3.45 was observed with unimmunized plantlets while the bio-immunized plants (TFBI) and ICAR-FUSICONT treated plants (TFTR) showed substantially reduced DSI (0.20 and 1.00) compared to FocTR4 treated control (TF). Significant increases in polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase activities, and enhanced phenol contents were recorded in bio-immunized plants compared to unimmunized plants. Field experiments at two different locations in Bihar, India revealed that bunch weight, no. of hands/bunch, and no. of fingers/hand of bio-immune treated plants were significantly higher compared to the control

    Optogenetic stimulation of the brainstem dorsal motor nucleus ameliorates acute pancreatitis

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    IntroductionInflammation is an inherently self-amplifying process, resulting in progressive tissue damage when unresolved. A brake on this positive feedback system is provided by the nervous system which has evolved to detect inflammatory signals and respond by activating anti-inflammatory processes, including the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway mediated by the vagus nerve. Acute pancreatitis, a common and serious condition without effective therapy, develops when acinar cell injury activates intrapancreatic inflammation. Prior study has shown that electrical stimulation of the carotid sheath, which contains the vagus nerve, boosts the endogenous anti-inflammatory response and ameliorates acute pancreatitis, but it remains unknown whether these anti-inflammatory signals originate in the brain.MethodsHere, we used optogenetics to selectively activate efferent vagus nerve fibers originating in the brainstem dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMN) and evaluated the effects on caerulein-induced pancreatitis.ResultsStimulation of the cholinergic neurons in the DMN significantly attenuates the severity of pancreatitis as indicated by reduced serum amylase, pancreatic cytokines, tissue damage, and edema. Either vagotomy or silencing cholinergic nicotinic receptor signaling by pre-administration of the antagonist mecamylamine abolishes the beneficial effects.DiscussionThese results provide the first evidence that efferent vagus cholinergic neurons residing in the brainstem DMN can inhibit pancreatic inflammation and implicate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway as a potential therapeutic target for acute pancreatitis

    Papaya Leaf Curl Virus (PaLCuV) Infection on Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Plants Alters Anatomical and Physiological Properties and Reduces Bioactive Components

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    Papaya leaves are used frequently for curing scores of ailments. The medicinal properties of papaya leaves are due to presence of certain bioactive/pharmacological compounds. However, the papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCuV), a geminivirus, is a major threat to papaya cultivation globally. During the present investigation, we observed that PaLCuV infection significantly altered the anatomy, physiology, and bioactive properties of papaya leaves. As compared to healthy leaves, the PaLCuV-infected leaves were found to have reduced stomatal density (76.83%), stomatal conductance (78.34%), photosynthesis rate (74.87%), water use efficiency (82.51%), chlorophyll (72.88%), carotenoid (46.63%), osmolality (48.55%), and soluble sugars (70.37%). We also found lower enzymatic activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT)—56.88%, 85.27%, and 74.49%, respectively). It was found that the size of guard cells (50%), transpiration rate (45.05%), intercellular CO2 concentration (47.81%), anthocyanin (27.47%), proline content (74.17%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (106.65%), and electrolyte leakage (75.38%) was elevated in PaLCuV-infected leaves. The chlorophyll fluorescence analysis showed that the infected plant leaves had a significantly lower value of maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII (Fv/Fm), photochemical quantum yield of photosystem I (PSI (Y(I)), and effective quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)). However, in non-photochemical quenching mechanisms, the proportion of energy dissipated in heat form (Y(NPQ)) was found to be significantly higher. We also tested the bioactivity of infected and healthy papaya leaf extracts on a Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. It was found that the crude extract of papaya leaves significantly enhanced the life span of C. elegans (29.7%) in comparison to virus-infected leaves (18.4%) on application of 100 µg/mL dose of the crude extract. Our research indicates that the PaLCuV-infected leaves not only had anatomical and physiological losses, but that pharmacological potential was also significantly decreased
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