58 research outputs found

    HIF-1alpha-pathway activation in cholangiocytes of patients with biliary atresia : an immunohistochemical/molecular exploratory study

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    Background: Biliary atresia is a neonatal disease characterized by choledochal obstruction and progressive cholangiopathy requiring liver transplantation in most patients. Hypoxia-ischemia affecting the biliary epithelium may lead to biliary obstruction. We hypothesized that ischemic cholangiopathy involving disruption of the peribiliary vascular plexus could act as a triggering event in biliary atresia pathogenesis. Methods: Liver and porta hepatis paraffin-embedded samples of patients with biliary atresia or intrahepatic neonatal cholestasis (controls) were immunohistochemically evaluated for HIF-1alpha-nuclear signals. Frozen histological samples were analyzed for gene expression in molecular profiles associated with hypoxia-ischemia. Prospective clinical-laboratory and histopathological data of biliary atresia patients and controls were reviewed. Results: Immunohistochemical HIF-1alpha signals localized to cholangiocytes were detected exclusively in liver specimens from biliary atresia patients. In 37.5% of liver specimens, HIF-1alpha signals were observed in biliary structures involving progenitor cell niches and peribiliary vascular plexus. HIF-1alpha signals were also detected in biliary remnants of 81.8% of porta hepatis specimens. Increased gene expression of molecules linked to REDOX status, biliary proliferation, and angiogenesis was identified in biliary atresia liver specimens. In addition, there was a trend towards decreased GSR expression levels in the HIF-1alpha-positive group compared to the HIF-1alpha-negative group. Conclusion: Activation of the HIF-1alpha pathway may be associated with the pathogenesis of biliary atresia, and additional studies are necessary to confirm the significance of this finding. Ischemic cholangiopathy and REDOX status disturbance are putative explanations for HIF-1alpha activation. These findings may give rise to novel lines of clinical and therapeutic investigation in the BA field

    N√ļmero 56

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    ERICA: prevalences of hypertension and obesity in Brazilian adolescents

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    Estimar as preval√™ncias de hipertens√£o arterial e obesidade e a fra√ß√£o atribu√≠vel populacional de hipertens√£o arterial devida √† obesidade em adolescentes brasileiros. M√ČTODOS Foram avaliados dados dos participantes do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes, estudo seccional l nacional de base escolar. A amostra foi dividida em 32 estratos geogr√°ficos e conglomerados de escolas e turmas, com representatividade nacional, macrorregional e de capitais. Obesidade foi classificada pelo √≠ndice de massa corporal segundo idade e sexo. Considerou-se hipertens√£o arterial a m√©dia da press√£o arterial sist√≥lica ou diast√≥lica maior ou igual ao percentil 95 da curva de refer√™ncia. Foram estimadas preval√™ncias e intervalos de confian√ßa de 95% (IC95%) de hipertens√£o arterial e de obesidade, nacionais e nas macrorregi√Ķes do Pa√≠s, por sexo e grupo et√°rio, assim como as fra√ß√Ķes de hipertens√£o atribu√≠veis √† obesidade na popula√ß√£o. RESULTADOS Foram avaliados 73.399 estudantes, 55,4% do sexo feminino, com m√©dia de idade 14,7 anos (DP = 1,6). A preval√™ncia de hipertens√£o arterial foi 9,6% (IC95% 9,0-10,3); sendo as mais baixas observadas nas regi√Ķes Norte, 8,4% (IC95% 7,7-9,2) e Nordeste, 8,4% (IC95% 7,6-9,2) e a mais alta na regi√£o Sul, 12,5% (IC95% 11,0-14,2). A preval√™ncia de obesidade foi 8,4% (IC95% 7,9-8,9), mais baixa na regi√£o Norte e mais alta na Sul. As preval√™ncias de hipertens√£o arterial e obesidade foram maiores no sexo masculino. Adolescentes com obesidade tiveram preval√™ncia de hipertens√£o arterial mais elevada, 28,4% (IC95% 25,5-31,2), do que aqueles com sobrepeso, 15,4% (IC95% 13,8-17,0), ou eutr√≥ficos, 6,3% (IC95% 5,6-7,0). A fra√ß√£o de hipertens√£o arterial atribu√≠vel √† obesidade foi de 17,8%. CONCLUS√ēES O ERICA foi o primeiro estudo brasileiro com representatividade nacional a estimar a preval√™ncia de hipertens√£o arterial aferida em adolescentes. A fra√ß√£o da preval√™ncia de hipertens√£o arterial atribu√≠vel √† obesidade mostrou que cerca de 1/5 dos hipertensos poderiam n√£o ser hipertensos se n√£o fossem obesos5011s13sCONSELHO NACIONAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO CIENT√ćFICO E TECNOL√ďGICO - CNPQFINANCIADORA DE ESTUDOS E PROJETOS - FINEP565037/2010-201090421To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the control of obesity would lower the prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian adolescents by 1/

    Differences in children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a cohort study in a Brazilian tertiary referral hospital

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    OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic/clinical/laboratory/treatments and outcomes among children and adolescents with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included patients diagnosed with pediatric COVID-19 (aged <18 years) between April 11, 2020 and April 22, 2021. During this period, 102/5,951 (1.7%) of all admissions occurred in neonates, children, and adolescents. Furthermore, 3,962 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection samples were processed in patients aged <18 years, and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 155 (4%) inpatients and outpatients. Six/155 pediatric patients were excluded from the study. Therefore, the final group included 149 children and adolescents (n=97 inpatients and 52 outpatients) with positive SARS-CoV-2 results. RESULTS: The frequencies of sore throat, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache, myalgia, nausea, lymphopenia, pre-existing chronic conditions, immunosuppressive conditions, and autoimmune diseases were significantly reduced in children and adolescents (p<0.05). Likewise, the frequencies of enoxaparin use (p=0.037), current immunosuppressant use (p=0.008), vasoactive agents (p=0.045), arterial hypotension (p<0.001), and shock (p=0.024) were significantly lower in children than in adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 had increased odds ratios (ORs) for sore throat (OR 13.054; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.750-61.977; p=0.001), nausea (OR 8.875; 95% CI 1.660-47.446; p=0.011), and lymphopenia (OR 3.575; 95% CI 1.355-9.430; p=0.010), but also had less hospitalizations (OR 0.355; 95% CI 0.138-0.916; p=0.032). The additional logistic regression analysis on patients with preexisting chronic conditions (n=108) showed that death as an outcome was significantly associated with pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (OR 22.300; 95% CI 2.341-212.421; p=0.007) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (OR 11.261; 95% CI 1.189-106. 581; p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Half of the laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases occurred in adolescents. Individuals belonging to this age group had an acute systemic involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pediatric SARS and MIS-C were the most important factors associated with the mortality rate in pediatric chronic conditions with COVID-19

    Analysis of a new sequential optimality condition applied to mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints

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    In this study, a novel sequential optimality condition for general continuous optimization problems is established. In the context of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints, the condition is proved to ensure Clarke stationarity. Originally devised for constrained nonsmooth optimization, the proposed sequential optimality condition addresses the domain of the constraints instead of their images, capturing indistinctly the features of the complementarity and the ordinary constraints of optimization problems modeling equilibrium conditions1852433447CONSELHO NACIONAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO CIENT√ćFICO E TECNOL√ďGICO - CNPQFUNDA√á√ÉO DE AMPARO √Ä PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE S√ÉO PAULO - FAPESP2018/24293-0; 2016/22989-2; 2013/07375-02018/24293-0; 2016/22989-2; 2013/07375-

    A brief survey of methods for solving nonlinear least-squares problems

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    In this paper, we present a brief survey of methods for solving nonlinear least-squares problems. We pay specific attention to methods that take into account the special structure of the problems. Most of the methods discussed belong to the quasi-Newton family (i.e. the structured quasi-Newton methods (SQN)). Our survey comprises some of the traditional and modern developed methods for nonlinear least-squares problems. At the end, we suggest a few topics for further research.9111

    NEOTROPICAL ALIEN MAMMALS: a data set of occurrence and abundance of alien mammals in the Neotropics

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    Biological invasion is one of the main threats to native biodiversity. For a species to become invasive, it must be voluntarily or involuntarily introduced by humans into a nonnative habitat. Mammals were among first taxa to be introduced worldwide for game, meat, and labor, yet the number of species introduced in the Neotropics remains unknown. In this data set, we make available occurrence and abundance data on mammal species that (1) transposed a geographical barrier and (2) were voluntarily or involuntarily introduced by humans into the Neotropics. Our data set is composed of 73,738 historical and current georeferenced records on alien mammal species of which around 96% correspond to occurrence data on 77 species belonging to eight orders and 26 families. Data cover 26 continental countries in the Neotropics, ranging from Mexico and its frontier regions (southern Florida and coastal-central Florida in the southeast United States) to Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay, and the 13 countries of Caribbean islands. Our data set also includes neotropical species (e.g., Callithrix sp., Myocastor coypus, Nasua nasua) considered alien in particular areas of Neotropics. The most numerous species in terms of records are from Bos sp. (n = 37,782), Sus scrofa (n = 6,730), and Canis familiaris (n = 10,084); 17 species were represented by only one record (e.g., Syncerus caffer, Cervus timorensis, Cervus unicolor, Canis latrans). Primates have the highest number of species in the data set (n = 20 species), partly because of uncertainties regarding taxonomic identification of the genera Callithrix, which includes the species Callithrix aurita, Callithrix flaviceps, Callithrix geoffroyi, Callithrix jacchus, Callithrix kuhlii, Callithrix penicillata, and their hybrids. This unique data set will be a valuable source of information on invasion risk assessments, biodiversity redistribution and conservation-related research. There are no copyright restrictions. Please cite this data paper when using the data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us on how they are using the data

    The O Uso das Tecnologias Digitais de Informação e Comunicação como Recurso Educacional no Ensino de Enfermagem

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    Digital information and communication technologies (TDIC) when integrated with pedagogical practices create innovative and collaborative learning spaces, promote autonomy and active participation of the student. In Nursing Education, these skills are necessary for the training of professionals capable of responding to the population's health care demands. The objective is to analyze the scientific production on the integration of these technologies in the teaching-learning process in undergraduate nursing. An integrative literature review is presented, a bibliographic method applied to the qualitative analysis of 17 articles, selected according to thematic and bibliometric criteria. The results show digital technologies integrated with Nursing Education and health education that indicate the effectiveness in the theory-practice integration, specialized learning support and multiple virtual and or electronic objects for information and communication. It is considered that TDIC have contributed to the expansion of the formative relationship and intensified innovations in Nursing Education. Keywords: Information Technology. Higher education. Nursing. Nursing education.Tecnologias Digitais de Informa√ß√£o e Comunica√ß√£o (TDIC) quando integradas a pr√°ticas pedag√≥gicas criam espa√ßos de aprendizagem inovadores e colaborativos, promovem a autonomia e a participa√ß√£o ativa do educando. No ensino de enfermagem, essas habilidades s√£o necess√°rias √† forma√ß√£o de profissionais capazes de responder √†s demandas de cuidado em sa√ļde da popula√ß√£o.¬† Objetiva-se analisar a produ√ß√£o cient√≠fica sobre a integra√ß√£o das TDIC no processo de ensino-aprendizagem na gradua√ß√£o em Enfermagem. Apresenta-se uma revis√£o integrativa da literatura, m√©todo bibliogr√°fico aplicado √† an√°lise qualitativa de 17 artigos, selecionados em crit√©rios tem√°ticos e bibliom√©tricos. Os resultados evidenciam tecnologias digitais integradas ao ensino de enfermagem e √† forma√ß√£o em sa√ļde que indicam a efetividade na integra√ß√£o teoria-pr√°tica, suporte especializado do aprendizado e m√ļltiplos objetos virtuais e/ou eletr√īnicos para a informa√ß√£o e a comunica√ß√£o. Considera-se que as TDIC t√™m contribu√≠do para amplia√ß√£o da rela√ß√£o formativa e intensificado as inova√ß√Ķes no ensino de enfermagem. Palavras-chave: Tecnologia da informa√ß√£o. Ensino superior. Enfermagem. Educa√ß√£o em enfermagem.

    ERICA: use of screens and consumption of meals and snacks by Brazilian adolescents

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    METHODS: We evaluated 74,589 12 to 17-year old adolescents from 1,247 schools in 124 Brazilian municipalities. A self-administered questionnaire was used. Its segment regarding nutrition contained questions about using TV, computers, and video game systems, having meals while watching TV, and consuming snacks in front of screens. Consumption of meals and snacks in front of screens was analyzed according to the following variables: geographical region, gender, age range, type of school (public or private), and school shift. The prevalences and their respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated under a complex sampling design. RESULTS: A great deal of the adolescents (51.8% IC95% 50.7-53.0) reported spending two or more hours a day in front of screens. That habit was more frequent among male adolescents, private school students, morning shift students, and students from Brazil's South region. More than half of the adolescents (56.6%, 95%CI 55.4-57.8) reported almost always or always having meals in front of TV, and 39.6% (95%CI 38.8-40.5) of them said they consumed snacks in front of screens exactly as often. Both situations were the most prevalent ones among the girls, who attended public schools and were from Brazil's Midwest region. CONCLUSIONS: Length of exposure to screens and consumption of meals and snacks almost always or always in front of screens are high among Brazilian adolescents. It is necessary to develop strategies aiming to reduce the length of screen use, considering the media reality that children and adolescents have been experiencing from earlier and earlier ages. That context must therefore be analyzed in an indissociable way

    NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics

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    Xenarthrans‚ÄĒanteaters, sloths, and armadillos‚ÄĒhave essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Our data set includes the families Chlamyphoridae (13), Dasypodidae (7), Myrmecophagidae (3), Bradypodidae (4), and Megalonychidae (2). We have no occurrence data on Dasypus pilosus (Dasypodidae). Regarding Cyclopedidae, until recently, only one species was recognized, but new genetic studies have revealed that the group is represented by seven species. In this data paper, we compiled a total of 42,528 records of 31 species, represented by occurrence and quantitative data, totaling 24,847 unique georeferenced records. The geographic range is from the southern United States, Mexico, and Caribbean countries at the northern portion of the Neotropics, to the austral distribution in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. Regarding anteaters, Myrmecophaga tridactyla has the most records (n¬†=¬†5,941), and Cyclopes sp. have the fewest (n¬†=¬†240). The armadillo species with the most data is Dasypus novemcinctus (n¬†=¬†11,588), and the fewest data are recorded for Calyptophractus retusus (n¬†=¬†33). With regard to sloth species, Bradypus variegatus has the most records (n¬†=¬†962), and Bradypus pygmaeus has the fewest (n¬†=¬†12). Our main objective with Neotropical Xenarthrans is to make occurrence and quantitative data available to facilitate more ecological research, particularly if we integrate the xenarthran data with other data sets of Neotropical Series that will become available very soon (i.e., Neotropical Carnivores, Neotropical Invasive Mammals, and Neotropical Hunters and Dogs). Therefore, studies on trophic cascades, hunting pressure, habitat loss, fragmentation effects, species invasion, and climate change effects will be possible with the Neotropical Xenarthrans data set. Please cite this data paper when using its data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using these data
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