2 research outputs found

    BIRC6 Is Associated with Vulnerability of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque

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    Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture can lead to cerebrovascular accident (CVA). By comparing RNA-Seq data from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) extracted from carotid atheroma surgically excised from a group of asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects, we identified more than 700 genomic variants associated with symptomatology (p < 0.05). From these, twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for further validation. Comparing genotypes of a hospital-based cohort of asymptomatic with symptomatic patients, an exonic SNP in the BIRC6 (BRUCE/Apollon) gene, rs35286811, emerged as significantly associated with CVA symptomatology (p = 0.002; OR = 2.24). Moreover, BIRC6 mRNA levels were significantly higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic subjects upon measurement by qPCR in excised carotid atherosclerotic tissue (p < 0.0001), and significantly higher in carriers of the rs35286811 risk allele (p < 0.0001). rs35286811 is a proxy of a GWAS SNP reported to be associated with red cell distribution width (RDW); RDW was increased in symptomatic patients (p < 0.03), but was not influenced by the rs35286811 genotype in our cohort. BIRC6 is a negative regulator of both apoptosis and autophagy. This work introduces BIRC6 as a novel genetic risk factor for stroke, and identifies autophagy as a genetically regulated mechanism of carotid plaque vulnerability.This work was financially supported by grants from the Departments of Education (Ref. PIBA2018-67) and Health (Ref. RIS3-2019222038) of the Basque Government, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain; by the Spanish Neurovascular Network (INVICTUSplus) (Ref. RD16/0019/0007) funded by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci√≥n, Madrid, Spain; and by the research project grant (IKERIKTUS) funded by the RefbioII Trans-Pyrenean Cooperation Network for Biomedical Research financed by Horizon 2020. I.A. is supported by the Marat√≥n EiTB 2017 for Funding of Research into Stroke, Bilbao, Spain (Ref. BIO18/IC/005); R.T.N. is the recipient of a fellowship from the Secretar√≠a Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnolog√≠a e Innovaci√≥n (SENACYT; Convocatoria Doctorado de Investigaci√≥n Ronda III, 2018; Ref. BIDP-III-2018-12) of the Gobierno Nacional, Rep√ļblica de Panam√°

    Analysis of the movements generated by a multi‚Äźfield functional electrical stimulation device for upper extremity rehabilitation

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    Background: The most common chronic sequela after stroke is the loss of arm function, and functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the forearm muscles is one of the options to treat it. Surface multi-field electrodes have emerged, showing a great potential to improve the selectivity of the stimulation, delay muscle fatigue, and provide easier donning and doffing. The muscular selectivity takes on special relevance in the rehabilitation of the upper extremity as hand dexterity requires a wide diversity of specific muscle actions. Methods: This pilot study analyses the movements generated in the wrist and fingers using a commercial multi-field technology-based FES device (Fesia Grasp). The study included five patients with hemiplegic subacute stroke, in which scanning of all cathodes of the electrode was carried out daily for 5 days, in two different forearm positions, with the resulting movements being labeled by experienced therapists. Results: The aim of this pilot study was to determine if there were differences between subjects and between forearm positions in terms of produced movements. Movements of the wrist (two movements) and the fingers (six movements) could be achieved in two different forearm positions. Conclusions: The multi-field electrode of Fesia Grasp enables to generate a wide range of movements of the hand in different positions. This fact could allow to produce more physiological movement patterns during the rehabilitation process with FES, which could have a beneficial effect on the recovery of patients with neurological diseases.The authors disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publications of this article: A part of this study was supported by grants of the Basque Government (Hazitek Program), project FESKU ZL‚Äź2018/00326