152 research outputs found

    Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhica district

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    Background: In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province), but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are typical of southern rural Mozambique has not been evaluated yet. Methods: Data from the DSS were used to estimate the levels and trends of fertility, mortality and migration in Manhiça, between 1998 and 2005. The estimates from Manhiça were compared with estimates from Maputo province using the 1997 National census and 1997 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The DHS data were used to estimate levels and trends of adult mortality using the siblings' histories and the orphanhood methods. Results: The populations in Manhiça and in Maputo province are young (44% <15 years in Manhiça and 42% in Maputo); with reduced adult males when compared to females (all ages sex ratio of 78.7 in Manhiça and 89 in Maputo). Fertility in Manhiça is at a similar level as in Maputo province and has remained around 5 children per woman, during the eight years of surveillance in Manhiça. Although the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Mozambique has decreased during the last two decades (from 148 deaths per 1000 live births in 1980 to 101 in 2003), it has remained stable around 80 in Manhiça during the surveillance period. Adult mortality has increased both in Manhiça (probability of dying from ages 15 to 60 increased from 0.4 in 1998 to 0.6 in 2005 in Manhiça, from 0.3 in 1992 to 0.4 in 1997 in Maputo province and from 0.1 in 1980 to 0.6 in 2000 in Mozambique). Consequently, the life expectancy decreased from 53 to 46 in Manhiça and from 42 years in 1997 to 38 in 2004 in Mozambique. Migration is high in Manhiça but tends to stabilise after the movements of resettlement that followed the end of the civil war in 1992. Conclusion: The population under demographic surveillance in Manhiça district presents characteristics that are typical of southern rural Mozambique, with predominance of young people and reduction of adult males. Labour migration and excess adult male mortality are the major factors for the reduction of adult males. Mortality is high and only infant mortality has started to stabilise while adult mortality has increased, and as consequence, life expectancy has decreased. The Manhiça DSS is an adequate tool to report demographic measures for southern rural Mozambique

    Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes.</p

    Continuum of HIV Care in Rural Mozambique: The Implications of HIV Testing Modality on Linkage and Retention

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    INTRODUCTION: Context-specific improvements in the continuum of HIV care are needed in order to achieve the UNAIDS target of 90-90-90. This study aimed to assess the linkage to and retention in HIV care according to different testing modalities in rural southern Mozambique. METHODS: Adults newly diagnosed with HIV from voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), provider-initiated (PICT) and home-based HIV testing (HBT) services were prospectively enrolled between 2014- 2015 at the Manhica District. Patients were passively followed-up through chart examination .Tracing was performed at 12-months to ascertain causes of loss to follow-up. Fine and Grey competing risk analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the each step of the cascade. RESULTS: Overall linkage to care as defined by having a CD4 count at 3 months, was 43.7% (95CI% 40.8-46.6) and 25.2% of all participants initiated ART. Factors associated with increased linkage in multivariable analysis included testing at VCT, older age, having been previously tested for HIV, owning a cell phone, presenting with WHO clinical stages III/IV, self-reported illness-associated disability in the previous month , and later calendar month of participant recruitment. Ascertaining deaths and transfers allowed adjustment of the rate of 12-month retention in treatment from 75.6% (95% CI 70.2-80.5) to 84.2% (95% CI 79.2-88.5). CONCLUSIONS: HBT reached a socio-demographically distinct population from that of clinic based testing modalities but low linkage to care points to a need for facilitated linkage interventions. Distinguishing between true treatment defaulting and other causes of loss-to-follow-up can significantly change indicators of retention in care

    Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhiça district

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    BACKGROUND: In Mozambique most of demographic data are obtained using census or sample survey including indirect estimations. A method of collecting longitudinal demographic data was introduced in southern Mozambique since 1996 (DSS -Demographic Surveillance System in Manhiça district, Maputo province), but the extent to which it yields demographic measures that are typical of southern rural Mozambique has not been evaluated yet. METHODS: Data from the DSS were used to estimate the levels and trends of fertility, mortality and migration in Manhiça, between 1998 and 2005. The estimates from Manhiça were compared with estimates from Maputo province using the 1997 National census and 1997 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The DHS data were used to estimate levels and trends of adult mortality using the siblings' histories and the orphanhood methods. RESULTS: The populations in Manhiça and in Maputo province are young (44% <15 years in Manhiça and 42% in Maputo); with reduced adult males when compared to females (all ages sex ratio of 78.7 in Manhiça and 89 in Maputo). Fertility in Manhiça is at a similar level as in Maputo province and has remained around 5 children per woman, during the eight years of surveillance in Manhiça. Although the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Mozambique has decreased during the last two decades (from 148 deaths per 1000 live births in 1980 to 101 in 2003), it has remained stable around 80 in Manhiça during the surveillance period. Adult mortality has increased both in Manhiça (probability of dying from ages 15 to 60 increased from 0.4 in 1998 to 0.6 in 2005 in Manhiça, from 0.3 in 1992 to 0.4 in 1997 in Maputo province and from 0.1 in 1980 to 0.6 in 2000 in Mozambique). Consequently, the life expectancy decreased from 53 to 46 in Manhiça and from 42 years in 1997 to 38 in 2004 in Mozambique. Migration is high in Manhiça but tends to stabilise after the movements of resettlement that followed the end of the civil war in 1992. CONCLUSION: The population under demographic surveillance in Manhiça district presents characteristics that are typical of southern rural Mozambique, with predominance of young people and reduction of adult males. Labour migration and excess adult male mortality are the major factors for the reduction of adult males. Mortality is high and only infant mortality has started to stabilise while adult mortality has increased, and as consequence, life expectancy has decreased. The Manhiça DSS is an adequate tool to report demographic measures for southern rural Mozambique

    What drives community adherence to indoor residual spraying (IRS) against malaria in Manhiça district, rural Mozambique: a qualitative study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Malaria control remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) reinforced the recommendation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to reduce malaria transmission. The National Malaria Control Programme has been reporting high coverage rates of IRS in Mozambique. It is important to establish to what extent these rates are a reflection of community acceptability, and to explore the factors associated with adherence, in order to recommend suitable approaches for interventions of this nature.</p> <p>Objective</p> <p>To understand the implementation process, reception and acceptability of the IRS program in Manhiça district, Southern Mozambique.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Qualitative data was collected through in-depth interviews, participant observation of IRS activities, informal interviews, and focus group discussions. Study participants comprised householders, community leaders, health care providers, sprayers, and community members. Qualitative data analysis was based on grounded theory. Secondary data from the Manhiça Demographic Surveillance System was used to complement the qualitative data.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>IRS was well received in most neighbourhoods. The overall coverage rates varied between 29% and 41% throughout the study period. The factors related to adherence to IRS were: immediate impact on insects in general, trust and obedience in the health authority, community leaders' influence, and acquaintance with the sprayers. Fighting malaria was not an important motivation for IRS adherence. There was a perception of limited efficacy of IRS against mosquitoes, but this did not affect adherence. Non-adherence to the intervention was mainly due to the unavailability of key householders, disagreement with the procedures, and the perception that spraying increased the burden of insects. Most respondents strongly favoured bed nets over IRS.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The study suggests that the contribution of IRS to malaria and mosquito control is not entirely perceived by the beneficiaries, and that other as cost effective interventions such as insecticide-treated nets are favoured over IRS. Adherence to IRS was found to be influenced by socio-political factors. There is a need to redefine the community sensitization approaches in order to make IRS a genuinely participative, acceptable, and sustainable programme.</p

    Association between HIV infection and socio-economic status: evidence from a semirural area of southern Mozambique

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    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the association between socio-economic status (SES) and HIV in Manhica, a district of Southern Mozambique with one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world. METHODS: Data were gathered from two cross-sectional surveys performed in 2010 and 2012 among 1511 adults and from the household census of the district's population. Fractional polynomial logit models were used to analyse the association between HIV and SES, controlling for age and sex and taking into account the nonlinearity of covariates. The inequality of the distribution of HIV infection with regard to SES was computed through a concentration index. RESULTS: Fourth and fifth wealth quintiles, the least poor, were associated with a reduced probability of HIV infection compared to the first quintile (OR = 0.595, P-value = 0.009 and OR = 0.474, P-value < 0.001, respectively). Probability of HIV infection peaked at 36 years and then fell, and was always higher for women regardless of age and SES. HIV infection was unequally distributed across the SES strata. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high HIV prevalence across the entire population of Manhica, the poorest are at greatest risk of being HIV infected. While women have a higher probability of being HIV positive than men, both sexes showed the same infection reduction at higher levels of SES. HIV interventions in the area should particularly focus on the poorest and on women without neglecting anyone else, as the HIV risk is high for everyone

    Blood pressure thresholds in pregnancy for identifying maternal and infant risk: A secondary analysis of community-level interventions for pre-eclampsia (CLIP) trial data

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    Background: Blood pressure measurement is a marker of antenatal care quality. In well resourced settings, lower blood pressure cutoffs for hypertension are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. We aimed to study the associations between blood pressure thresholds and adverse outcomes and the diagnostic test properties of these blood pressure cutoffs in low-resource settings.Methods: We did a secondary analysis of data from 22 intervention clusters in the Community-Level Interventions for Pre-eclampsia (CLIP) cluster randomised trials (NCT01911494) in India (n=6), Mozambique (n=6), and Pakistan (n=10). We included pregnant women aged 15-49 years (12-49 years in Mozambique), identified in their community by trained community health workers, who had data on blood pressure measurements and outcomes. The trial was unmasked. Maximum blood pressure was categorised as: normal blood pressure (systolic blood pressure [sBP] [dBP] Hg), elevated blood pressure (sBP 120-129 mm Hg and dBP Hg), stage 1 hypertension (sBP 130-139 mm Hg or dBP 80-89 mm Hg, or both), non-severe stage 2 hypertension (sBP 140-159 mm Hg or dBP 90-109 mm Hg, or both), or severe stage 2 hypertension (sBP ≥160 mm Hg or dBP ≥110 mm Hg, or both). We classified women according to the maximum blood pressure category reached across all visits for the primary analyses. The primary outcome was a maternal, fetal, or neonatal mortality or morbidity composite. We estimated dose-response relationships between blood pressure category and adverse outcomes, as well as diagnostic test properties.Findings: Between Nov 1, 2014, and Feb 28, 2017, 21 069 women (6067 in India, 4163 in Mozambique, and 10 839 in Pakistan) contributed 103 679 blood pressure measurements across the three CLIP trials. Only women with non-severe or severe stage 2 hypertension, as discrete diagnostic categories, experienced more adverse outcomes than women with normal blood pressure (risk ratios 1·29-5·88). Using blood pressure categories as diagnostic thresholds (women with blood pressure within the category or any higher category vs those with blood pressure in any lower category), dose-response relationships were observed between increasing thresholds and adverse outcomes, but likelihood ratios were informative only for severe stage 2 hypertension and maternal CNS events (likelihood ratio 6·36 [95% CI 3·65-11·07]) and perinatal death (5·07 [3·64-7·07]), particularly stillbirth (8·53 [5·63-12·92]).Interpretation: In low-resource settings, neither elevated blood pressure nor stage 1 hypertension were associated with maternal, fetal, or neonatal mortality or morbidity adverse composite outcomes. Only the threshold for severe stage 2 hypertension met diagnostic test performance standards. Current diagnostic thresholds for hypertension in pregnancy should be retained.Funding: University of British Columbia, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Loss to follow-up and opportunities for reengagement in HIV care in rural Mozambique: A prospective cohort study.

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    "Patients lost to follow-up (LTFU) over the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cascade have poor clinical outcomes and contribute to onward HIV transmission. We assessed true care outcomes and factors associated with successful reengagement in patients LTFU in southern Mozambique.Newly diagnosed HIV-positive adults were consecutively recruited in the Manhi\xC3\xA7a District. Patients LTFU within 12 months after HIV diagnosis were visited at home from June 2015 to July 2016 and interviewed for ascertainment of outcomes and reasons for LTFU. Factors associated with reengagement in care within 90 days after the home visit were analyzed by Cox proportional hazards model.Among 1122 newly HIV-diagnosed adults, 691 (61.6%) were identified as LTFU. Of those, 557 (80.6%) were approached at their homes and 321 (57.6%) found at home. Over 50% had died or migrated, 10% had been misclassified as LTFU, and 252 (78.5%) were interviewed. Following the visit, 79 (31.3%) reengaged in care. Having registered in care and a shorter time between LTFU and visit were associated with reengagement in multivariate analyses: adjusted hazards ratio of 3.54 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81-6.92; P\xE2\x80\x8A<\xE2\x80\x8A.001] and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.87-1.00; P\xE2\x80\x8A=\xE2\x80\x8A.045), respectively. The most frequently reported barriers were the lack of trust in the HIV-diagnosis, the perception of being in good health, and fear of being badly treated by health personnel and differed by type of LTFU.Estimates of LTFU in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa are likely to be overestimated in the absence of active tracing strategies. Home visits are resource-intensive but useful strategies for reengagement for at least one-third of LTFU patients when applied in the context of differentiated care for those LTFU individuals who had already enrolled in HIV care at some point.

    Under treatment of pneumonia among children under 5 years of age in a malaria-endemic area: population-based surveillance study conducted in Manhica district- rural, Mozambique

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    BACKGROUND: Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines were developed to decrease morbidity and mortality, yet implementation varies across settings. Factors associated with poor adherence are not well understood. METHODS: We used data from Manhica District Hospital outpatient department and five peripheral health centers to examine pneumonia management for children <5 years old from January 2008 to June 2011. Episodes of IMCI-defined pneumonia (cough or difficult breathing plus tachypnea), severe pneumonia (pneumonia plus chest wall in-drawing), and/or clinician-diagnosed pneumonia (based on discharge diagnosis) were included. RESULTS: Among severe pneumonia episodes, 96.2% (2,918/3,032) attended in the outpatient department and 70.0% (291/416) attended in health centers were appropriately referred to the emergency department. Age<1 year, malnutrition and various physical exam findings were associated with referral. For non-severe pneumonia episodes, antibiotics were prescribed in 45.7% (16,094/35,224). Factors associated with antibiotic prescription included age <1 year, abnormal auscultatory findings, and clinical diagnosis of pneumonia; diagnosis of malaria or gastroenteritis and pallor were negatively associated with antibiotic prescription. CONCLUSION: Adherence to recommended management of severe pneumonia was high in a hospital outpatient department, but suboptimal in health centers. Antibiotics were prescribed in fewer than half of non-severe pneumonia episodes, and diagnosis of malaria was the strongest risk factor for incorrect management

    Infant mortality and morbidity associated with preterm and small-for-gestational-age births in Southern Mozambique: A retrospective cohort study

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    BACKGROUND: Preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with adverse outcomes during the first stages of life. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality associated with preterm and SGA births during the first year of life in a rural area of Southern Mozambique. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study using previously collected data from children born at the Manhica District Hospital in two different periods (2003-2005 and 2010-2012). Newborns were classified as being preterm and/or SGA or as babies not fulfilling any of the previous conditions (term non-SGA). All children were followed up for a year for morbidity and mortality outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 5574 live babies were included in the analysis. The prevalence of preterm delivery was 6.2% (345/5574); the prevalence of SGA was 14.0% (776/5542) and 2.2% (114/5542) of the children presented both conditions. During the neonatal period, preterm delivery and SGA were associated with 13 (HR: 13.0, 95% CI 4.0-42.2) and 5 times (HR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.6-12.6) higher mortality compared to term non SGA babies. Risk of hospitalization was only increased when both conditions were present (IRR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1.5-8.1). Mortality is also increased during the entire first year, although at a lower rate. CONCLUSIONS: Neonatal and infant mortality rates are remarkably high among preterm and SGA babies in southern Mozambique. These increased rates are concentrated within the neonatal period. Prompt identification of these conditions is needed to implement interventions aimed at increasing survival of these high-risk newborns
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