291 research outputs found

    Incidence of venous thromboembolism and use of anticoagulation in hematological malignancies: Critical review of the literature

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    Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) frequently complicates the course of hematologic malignancies (HM) and its incidence is similar to that observed in high-risk solid tumors. Despite that, pharmacologic prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in patients with HM is challenging, mainly because a severe thrombocytopenia frequently complicates the course of treatments or may be present since diagnosis, thus increasing the risk of bleeding. Therefore, in this setting, safe and effective methods of VTE prophylaxis and treatment have not been well defined and hematologists generally refer to guidelines produced for cancer patients that give indications on anticoagulation in patients with thrombocytopenia. In this review, besides to summarize the incidence and the available data on prophylaxis and treatment of VTE in HM, we give some advices on how to use antithrombotic drugs in patients with HM according to platelets count

    Effects of B-Cell Lymphoma on the Immune System and Immune Recovery after Treatment: The Paradigm of Targeted Therapy

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    B-cell lymphoma and lymphoproliferative diseases represent a heterogeneous and complex group of neoplasms that are accompanied by a broad range of immune regulatory disorder phenotypes. Clinical features of autoimmunity, hyperinflammation, immunodeficiency and infection can variously dominate, depending on the immune pathway most involved. Immunological imbalance can play a role in lymphomagenesis, also supporting the progression of the disease, while on the other hand, lymphoma acts on the immune system to weaken immunosurveillance and facilitate immunoevasion. Therefore, the modulation of immunity can have a profound effect on disease progression or resolution, which makes the immune system a critical target for new therapies. In the current therapeutic scenario enriched by chemo-free regimens, it is important to establish the effect of various drugs on the disease, as well as on the restoration of immune functions. In fact, treatment of B-cell lymphoma with passive immunotherapy that targets tumor cells or targets the tumor microenvironment, together with adoptive immunotherapy, is becoming more frequent. The aim of this review is to report relevant data on the evolution of the immune system during and after treatment with targeted therapy of B-cell lymphomas

    High Output Heart Failure in Multiple Myeloma: Pathogenetic Considerations

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    SIMPLE SUMMARY: Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell disorder that accounts for around 10% of all haematological malignancies. This neoplasia is often associated with a significant prevalence of cardiovascular complications resulting from several factors, unrelated and/or related to the disease. Among cardiovascular complications, the high output heart failure is of great importance as it is related to a worse prognosis for patients. It is important to point out that, despite the availability of more and more numerous and effective drugs, myeloma remains an incurable disease, with frequent relapses and several treatment lines, with the need, therefore, for a careful evaluation of patients, especially from a cardiological point of view. For this reason, we are proposing a comprehensive overview of different pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for high output heart failure in multiple myeloma, including artero-venous shunts, enhanced angiogenesis, glutamminolysis, hyperammonemia and hemorheological alterations, with the belief that a multidisciplinary approach, in clinical evaluation is critical for the optimal management of the patient. ABSTRACT: The high output heart failure is a clinical condition in which the systemic congestion is associated to a high output state, and it can be observed in a non-negligible percentage of hematological diseases, particularly in multiple myeloma, a condition in which the risk of adverse cardiovascular events may increase, with a worse prognosis for patients. For this reason, though an accurate literature search, we provided in this review a complete overview of different pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for high output heart failure in multiple myeloma. Indeed, this clinical finding is present in the 8% of multiple myeloma patients, and it may be caused by artero-venous shunts, enhanced angiogenesis, glutamminolysis, hyperammonemia and hemorheological alterations with increase in plasma viscosity. The high output heart failure in multiple myeloma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary approach

    Calculated Whole Blood Viscosity and Albumin/Fibrinogen Ratio in Patients with a New Diagnosis of Multiple Myeloma: Relationships with Some Prognostic Predictors

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    Background: In this single center study, we retrospectively evaluated the calculated hemorheological profile in patients with a new diagnosis of multiple myeloma, with the aim to evaluate possible relationships with some prognostic predictors, such as ISS, albumin levels, beta2-microglobulin, red cell distribution width, and bone marrow plasma cell infiltration. Methods: In a cohort of 190 patients, we examined the calculated blood viscosity using the de Simone formula, and the albumin/fibrinogen ratio as a surrogate of erythrocyte aggregation, and then we related these parameters to prognostic factors, using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Results: From our analysis, it emerged that the evaluated hemorheological pattern differed in the three isotypes of multiple myeloma, and the whole blood viscosity was higher in IgA and IgG isotypes with respect to the light chain multiple myeloma (p < 0.001). Moreover, we observed that, as the ISS stage progressed, the albumin/fibrinogen ratio was reduced, and the same hemorheological trend was traced in subgroups with lower albumin levels, higher beta2-microglobulin and red cell distribution width RDW values, and in the presence of a greater bone marrow plasma cell infiltrate. Conclusions: Through the changes in blood viscosity in relation to different prognostic factors, this analysis might underline the role of the hemorheological pattern in multiple myeloma

    Host-related factors and cancer: Malnutrition and non-Hodgkin lymphoma

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    Assessment of host-related factors is a crucial aspect in the comprehensive management of cancer patients. A distinct nutritional disturbance linked to cancer has been recognized to be associated with negative outcomes. However, compared to solid tumors, only a limited number of studies have looked specifically at nutritional issues in the field of lymphoma. The aim of this review is to integrate the current knowledge on interactions between malnutrition and lymphoma and address most relevant and pertinent questions. We first provide a literature review on the mutual biological relationship between malnutrition and lymphoma. Next, we explore the overlap between malnutrition, sarcopenia, cachexia and frailty in lymphoma studies. In addition, we summarize the clinical assessment scales used to measure malnutrition in lymphoma subjects. Furthermore, we address the problem of nutritional interventions aimed at patients who are candidates for treatment for lymphoma. Malnutrition can arise as a consequence of lymphoma disease and can in turn promote lymphomagenesis, negatively affect the response to therapy and favor adverse event to treatment. There is increasing evidence that malnutrition, sarcopenia and cachexia in lymphoma are intimately inter-related and are a hallmark of frailty. A variety of different tools are recorded with the apparent ability to describe nutritional status and to impact prognosis in lymphoma patients. Finally, a network of prognostic host- and disease-related factors is proposed where malnutrition can interact with each other in complex ways

    Combined Point of Care Tools Are Able to Improve Treatment Adherence and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Severe Hemophilia: An Observational Prospective Study

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    Introduction: Ultrasound (US) assessment of joints is an evolving point of care tool for the detection of early joint arthropathy (Napolitano M, Kessler CM. Hemophilia A and B. Consultative Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Kitchens, 4th edition); population pharmacokinetic (pop-PK) studies are adopted as a useful instrument to set the prophylaxis regimen for patients with hemophilia, they may improve adherence (Nagao A.et al. Thromb Res. 2019 Jan; 173:79-84) and reduce the annual bleeding rate (ABR). Adherence to continuous intravenous administrations of factor VIII or Factor IX products is challenging, thus patients may experience breakthrough bleedings while on prophylaxis. Repeated US examinations of joint status have recently been advocated to attempt to remedy sub-optimal medication adherence (Di Minno A et al., Blood Rev. 2019 Jan;33:106-116). Aim of the current prospective analysis was to evaluate the impact of combined US assessment and pop-PK study on adherence to treatment and health related quality of life in patients with severe hemophilia A(HA) and B (HB) under regular prophylaxis. Material and methods: This prospective observational study was performed at a single tertiary center from January 2017 to June 2019. Research was conducted following the Helsinki Declaration. All patients included in the study provided a written informed consent for study participation. Patients with severe HA and HB routinely underwent, as part of regular 12-months follow-up visits, the following: US joints evaluation of elbows, knees and ankles using the HEAD-US protocol, treatment adherence evaluation by VERITAS-Pro questionnaire, health ‚Äďrelated quality of life assessment by the standardized EQ-5D,EQ-VAS and pop-PK study (WAPPS-Hemo, McMaster University) as needed (i.e.in case of changes in life style, planned treatment switch); each patient visualised US and his estimated PK profile during medial encounters. Compliance to the prescribed treatment was also determined by analysis of patient diaries with infusion logs. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 25.0 (SPSS Chicago, IL). Statistical tests were 2-sided, with a significance threshold of 0.05. Results: Twenty consecutive males with severe haemophilia were included in the current analysis, 13 with severe HA, 2 with HA with previous inhibitors and 5 HB, with a median age of 30 (range 14- 56) years and a median ABR of 5 (range:0-12). Nine patients were under primary prophylaxis, 8 under secondary prophylaxis and 3 under tertiary prophylaxis, they all self-infused at home. Four patients had one target joint and 3 patients had multiple target joints. For each enrolled subject, HEAD-US score, VERITAS-pro, EQ5D and EQ-VAS score were assessed at enrolment (T0) and at 12 (T12) and 24 (T24) months follow-up visits, respectively. Pop-PK was assessed in 11 patients: in 7 (5 HA,2 HB) it was assessed twice, before and after treatment switch to extended half-life (EHL) products, in 4 it was assessed once to modify prophylaxis treatment schedules for a more active life-style (N=2) or weight changes (N=2). Median ABR was 4 at T12 and 3.8 at T24. Reported breakthrough bleeds at T12 were 14, mainly trauma-related (N= 8) or affecting target joints (N=4), they were not reported at T24 in patients with PK-driven modified schedules (N=4) and in 4 patients under EHL treatments. Mean HEAD-US score at T0 resulted 8 (range:0-16), at T24 it was 6 (range:0-16). Mean Veritas-Pro score values were 42.7 at TO, 40.1 at T12 and 38.7 at T24. At T0, EQ-5D mean utility score was 0.82 (range: 0.68-1), at T24, the mean was 0.87 (range:0.72-1). In detail, at 24 months follow-up, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) improvement in adherence to treatment with particular reference to the dimensions of communication and skipped doses. A tendency toward improved HEAD-US score, higher adherence and better quality of life scores, was observed in particular in patients switched to EHL products at T24, at a mean of 10 months after switching (range: 6-22 months). Conclusion: Several combined measures of haemophilia treatment monitoring, allowing visual assessment of joints status and PK profile estimates by patients have here shown to improve treatment adherence and quality of life in patients with HA and HB, this may be not only related to new available treatments but also to an increased awareness and education of patients

    Cardiovascular Issues in Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Treatments for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Review

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    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm driven by a fusion gene, encoding for the chimeric protein BCR-ABL, with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically improved survival, but there are significant concerns about cardiovascular toxicity. Cardiovascular risk can be lowered with appropriate baseline evaluation, accurate choice of TKI therapy, improvement of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors through lifestyle modifications, and prescription of drugs for primary or secondary prevention. Which examinations are necessary, and when do they have to be scheduled? How often should a TKI-treated patient undergo which cardiology test or exam? Is there an accurate way to estimate the risk that each TKI may determine a cardiovascular adverse event in a CML patient? In a few words, how can we optimize the cardiovascular risk management in CML patients before and during TKI treatment? The aim of this review is to describe cardiac and vascular toxicity of TKIs used for CML treatment according to the most recent literature and to identify unmet clinical needs in cardiovascular risk management and complications in these patients. Regarding the TKI-induced cardiovascular toxicity, the full mechanism is still unclear, but it is accepted that different factors may play different roles: endothelial damage and atherosclerosis, metabolic impairment, hypertensive effect, glomerular impairment, and mast-cell disruption. Preventive strategies are aimed at minimizing cardiovascular risk when CML is diagnosed. Cardio-oncology units in specialized hematology centers may afford a personalized and multidisciplinary approach to the patient, optimizing the balance between treatment of the neoplasm and management of cardiovascular risk
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