118 research outputs found

    Rapid translocation of nanoparticles from the lung airspaces to the body

    Get PDF
    Nano-size particles show promise for pulmonary drug delivery, yet their behavior after deposition in the lung remains poorly understood. In this study, a series of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles were systematically varied in chemical composition, shape, size and surface charge, and their biodistribution and elimination were quantified in rat models after lung instillation. We demonstrate that nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameter (HD) less than ≈34 nm and a noncationic surface charge translocate rapidly from the lung to mediastinal lymph nodes. Nanoparticles of HD < 6 nm can traffic rapidly from the lungs to lymph nodes and the bloodstream, and then be subsequently cleared by the kidneys. We discuss the importance of these findings for drug delivery, air pollution and carcinogenesis

    Lung inflammation does not affect the clearance kinetics of lipid nanocapsules following pulmonary administration

    Get PDF
    Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are semi-rigid spherical capsules with a triglyceride core that present a promising formulation option for the pulmonary delivery of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. Whilst the biodistribution of LNCs of different size has been studied following intravenous administration, the fate of LNCs following pulmonary delivery has not been reported. We investigated quantitatively whether lung inflammation affects the clearance of 50nm lipid nanocapsules, or is exacerbated by their pulmonary administration. Studies were conducted in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation compared to healthy controls. Particle deposition and nanocapsule clearance kinetics were measured by single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging over 48 h. A significantly lower lung dose of (111)In-LNC50 was achieved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated animals compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). When normalised to the delivered lung dose, the clearance kinetics of (111)In-LNC50 from the lungs fit a first order model with an elimination half-life of 10.5±0.9h (R(2)=0.995) and 10.6±0.3h (R(2)=1.000) for healthy and inflamed lungs respectively (n=3). In contrast, (111)In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), a small hydrophilic molecule, was cleared rapidly from the lungs with the majority of the dose absorbed within 20min of administration. Biodistribution to lungs, stomach-intestine, liver, trachea-throat and blood at the end of the imaging period was unaltered by lung inflammation. This study demonstrated that lung clearance and whole body distribution of lipid nanocapsules were unaffected by the presence of acute lung inflammation

    Size and surface charge of gold nanoparticles determine absorption across intestinal barriers and accumulation in secondary target organs after oral administration

    Get PDF
    It is of urgent need to identify the exact physico-chemical characteristics which allow maximum uptake and accumulation in secondary target organs of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems after oral ingestion. We administered radiolabelled gold nanoparticles in different sizes (1.4-200 nm) with negative surface charge and 2.8 nm nanoparticles with opposite surface charges by intra-oesophageal instillation into healthy adult female rats. The quantitative amount of the particles in organs, tissues and excrements was measured after 24 h by gamma-spectroscopy. The highest accumulation in secondary organs was mostly found for 1.4 nm particles; the negatively charged particles were accumulated mostly more than positively charged particles. Importantly, 18 nm particles show a higher accumulation in brain and heart compared to other sized particles. No general rule accumulation can be made so far. Therefore, specialized drug delivery systems via the oral route have to be individually designed, depending on the respective target organ

    Biodistribution of gold nanoparticles in mouse lung following intratracheal instillation

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The fate of gold nanoparticles, 2, 40 and 100 nm, administered intratracheally to adult female mice was examined. The nanoparticles were traced by autometallography (AMG) at both ultrastructural and light microscopic levels. Also, the gold content was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The liver is the major site of deposition of circulating gold nanoparticles. Therefore the degree of translocation was determined by the hepatic deposition of gold. Mice were instilled with 5 intratracheal doses of gold nanoparticles distributed over a period of 3 weeks and were killed 24 h after the last dose. One group of mice were given a single intratracheal dose and were killed after 1 h.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The instilled nanoparticles were found in lung macrophages already 1 h after a single instillation. In mice instilled treated repeatedly during 3 weeks, the load was substantial. Ultrastructurally, AMG silver enhanced gold nanoparticles were found in lysosome-/endosome-like organelles of the macrophages and analysis with AMG, ICP-MS and NAA of the liver revealed an almost total lack of translocation of nanoparticles. In mice given repeated instillations of 2 nm gold nanoparticles, 1.4‰ (by ICP-MS) to 1.9‰ (by NAA) of the instilled gold was detected in the liver. With the 40 nm gold, no gold was detected in the liver (detection level 2 ng, 0.1‰) except for one mouse in which 3‰ of the instilled gold was found in the liver. No gold was detected in any liver of mice instilled with 100 nm gold (detection level 2 ng, 0.1‰) except in a single animal with 0.39‰ of the dose in the liver.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We found that that: (1) inert gold nanoparticles, administered intratracheally are phagocytosed by lung macrophages; (2) only a tiny fraction of the gold particles is translocated into systemic circulation. (3) The translocation rate was greatest with the 2 nm gold particles.</p

    Allergen particle binding by human primary bronchial epithelial cells is modulated by surfactant protein D

    Get PDF
    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Allergen-containing subpollen particles (SPP) are released from whole plant pollen upon contact with water or even high humidity. Because of their size SPP can preferentially reach the lower airways where they come into contact with surfactant protein (SP)-D. Our previous work demonstrated that SP-D increases the uptake of SPP by alveolar macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the uptake of SPP in human primary epithelial cells and the potential modulation by SP-D. The patho-physiological consequence was evaluated by measurement of pro-inflammatory mediators.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>SPP were isolated from timothy grass and subsequently fluorescently labelled. Human primary bronchial epithelial cells were incubated with SPP or polystyrene particles (PP) in the presence and absence of surfactant protein D. In addition, different sizes and surface charges of the PP were studied. Particle uptake was evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Soluble mediators were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or bead array.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>SPP were taken up by primary epithelial cells in a dose dependent manner. This uptake was coincided with secretion of Interleukin (IL)-8. SP-D increased the fraction of bronchial epithelial cells that bound SPP but not the fraction of cells that internalized SPP. SPP-induced secretion of IL-8 was further increased by SP-D. PP were bound and internalized by epithelial cells but this was not modulated by SP-D.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Epithelial cells bind and internalize SPP and PP which leads to increased IL-8 secretion. SP-D promotes attachment of SPP to epithelial cells and may thus be involved in the inflammatory response to inhaled allergen.</p

    Mitigation of Quantum Dot Cytotoxicity by Microencapsulation

    Get PDF
    When CdSe/ZnS-polyethyleneimine (PEI) quantum dots (QDs) are microencapsulated in polymeric microcapsules, human fibroblasts are protected from acute cytotoxic effects. Differences in cellular morphology, uptake, and viability were assessed after treatment with either microencapsulated or unencapsulated dots. Specifically, QDs contained in microcapsules terminated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) mitigate contact with and uptake by cells, thus providing a tool to retain particle luminescence for applications such as extracellular sensing and imaging. The microcapsule serves as the “first line of defense” for containing the QDs. This enables the individual QD coating to be designed primarily to enhance the function of the biosensor