74 research outputs found

    NEOTROPICAL ALIEN MAMMALS: a data set of occurrence and abundance of alien mammals in the Neotropics

    No full text
    Biological invasion is one of the main threats to native biodiversity. For a species to become invasive, it must be voluntarily or involuntarily introduced by humans into a nonnative habitat. Mammals were among first taxa to be introduced worldwide for game, meat, and labor, yet the number of species introduced in the Neotropics remains unknown. In this data set, we make available occurrence and abundance data on mammal species that (1) transposed a geographical barrier and (2) were voluntarily or involuntarily introduced by humans into the Neotropics. Our data set is composed of 73,738 historical and current georeferenced records on alien mammal species of which around 96% correspond to occurrence data on 77 species belonging to eight orders and 26 families. Data cover 26 continental countries in the Neotropics, ranging from Mexico and its frontier regions (southern Florida and coastal-central Florida in the southeast United States) to Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay, and the 13 countries of Caribbean islands. Our data set also includes neotropical species (e.g., Callithrix sp., Myocastor coypus, Nasua nasua) considered alien in particular areas of Neotropics. The most numerous species in terms of records are from Bos sp. (n = 37,782), Sus scrofa (n = 6,730), and Canis familiaris (n = 10,084); 17 species were represented by only one record (e.g., Syncerus caffer, Cervus timorensis, Cervus unicolor, Canis latrans). Primates have the highest number of species in the data set (n = 20 species), partly because of uncertainties regarding taxonomic identification of the genera Callithrix, which includes the species Callithrix aurita, Callithrix flaviceps, Callithrix geoffroyi, Callithrix jacchus, Callithrix kuhlii, Callithrix penicillata, and their hybrids. This unique data set will be a valuable source of information on invasion risk assessments, biodiversity redistribution and conservation-related research. There are no copyright restrictions. Please cite this data paper when using the data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us on how they are using the data

    Update on the approach to smoking in patients with respiratory diseases.

    Get PDF
    Smoking is the leading cause of respiratory disease (RD). The harmful effects of smoking on the respiratory system begin in utero and influence immune responses throughout childhood and adult life. In comparison with ?healthy? smokers, smokers with RD have peculiarities that can impede smoking cessation, such as a higher level of nicotine dependence; nicotine withdrawal; higher levels of exhaled carbon monoxide; low motivation and low self-efficacy; greater concern about weight gain; and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression. In addition, they require more intensive, prolonged treatment. It is always necessary to educate such individuals about the fact that quitting smoking is the only measure that will reduce the progression of RD and improve their quality of life, regardless of the duration and severity of the disease. Physicians should always offer smoking cessation treatment. Outpatient or inpatient smoking cessation treatment should be multidisciplinary, based on behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy. It will thus be more effective and cost-effective, doubling the chances of success

    NEOTROPICAL XENARTHRANS: a data set of occurrence of xenarthran species in the Neotropics

    No full text
    Xenarthrans‚ÄĒanteaters, sloths, and armadillos‚ÄĒhave essential functions for ecosystem maintenance, such as insect control and nutrient cycling, playing key roles as ecosystem engineers. Because of habitat loss and fragmentation, hunting pressure, and conflicts with domestic dogs, these species have been threatened locally, regionally, or even across their full distribution ranges. The Neotropics harbor 21 species of armadillos, 10 anteaters, and 6 sloths. Our data set includes the families Chlamyphoridae (13), Dasypodidae (7), Myrmecophagidae (3), Bradypodidae (4), and Megalonychidae (2). We have no occurrence data on Dasypus pilosus (Dasypodidae). Regarding Cyclopedidae, until recently, only one species was recognized, but new genetic studies have revealed that the group is represented by seven species. In this data paper, we compiled a total of 42,528 records of 31 species, represented by occurrence and quantitative data, totaling 24,847 unique georeferenced records. The geographic range is from the southern United States, Mexico, and Caribbean countries at the northern portion of the Neotropics, to the austral distribution in Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, and Uruguay. Regarding anteaters, Myrmecophaga tridactyla has the most records (n¬†=¬†5,941), and Cyclopes sp. have the fewest (n¬†=¬†240). The armadillo species with the most data is Dasypus novemcinctus (n¬†=¬†11,588), and the fewest data are recorded for Calyptophractus retusus (n¬†=¬†33). With regard to sloth species, Bradypus variegatus has the most records (n¬†=¬†962), and Bradypus pygmaeus has the fewest (n¬†=¬†12). Our main objective with Neotropical Xenarthrans is to make occurrence and quantitative data available to facilitate more ecological research, particularly if we integrate the xenarthran data with other data sets of Neotropical Series that will become available very soon (i.e., Neotropical Carnivores, Neotropical Invasive Mammals, and Neotropical Hunters and Dogs). Therefore, studies on trophic cascades, hunting pressure, habitat loss, fragmentation effects, species invasion, and climate change effects will be possible with the Neotropical Xenarthrans data set. Please cite this data paper when using its data in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using these data

    O trabalho no corte de cana-de-a√ß√ļcar, riscos e efeitos na sa√ļde: revis√£o da literatura

    Get PDF
    Describe the main work risks for sugarcane cutters and their effects on workers‚Äô health. METHODS: Critical review of articles, with bibliographic research carried out in the PubMed, SciELO Medline, and Lilacs databases. The following keywords were used: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-a√ß√ļcar, and colheita de canade-a√ß√ļcar. The inclusion criteria were articles published between January 1997 and June 2017, which evaluated working conditions and health effects on sugarcane cutters. Those that did not deal with the work impact of cutting burned and unburnt sugarcane in the cutter‚Äôs health were excluded. The final group of manuscripts was selected by the lead author of this study and reviewed by a co-author. Disagreements were resolved by consensus using the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and, where necessary, the final decision was made by consulting a third co-author. RESULTS: From the 89 articles found, 52 met the selection criteria and were evaluated. Studies have shown that cutters work under conditions of physical and mental overload, thermal overload, exposure to pollutants, and are subject to accidents. The main effects observed were respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal, heat stress, dehydration, genotoxic, and those due to accidents. CONCLUSIONS: Work on the manual cutting of sugarcane, especially of burned sugarcane, exposes workers to various risks, with different health impacts. Risk reduction for exposure to pollution and thermal and physical overload is required as a measure to preserve the health of the worker.OBJETIVO: Descrever os principais riscos do trabalho de cortadores de cana-de-a√ß√ļcar e seus efeitos na sa√ļde dos trabalhadores. M√ČTODOS: Revis√£o critica de artigos, com pesquisa bibliogr√°fica realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO Medline, e Lilacs. Foram empregadas as palavras-chave: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-a√ß√ļcar e colheita de cana-de-a√ß√ļcar. Os crit√©rios de inclus√£o foram artigos publicados entre janeiro de 1997 a junho de 2017, que avaliaram as condi√ß√Ķes de trabalho e os efeitos na sa√ļde em trabalhadores cortadores de cana-de-a√ß√ļcar. Foram exclu√≠dos aqueles que n√£o tratassem do impacto do trabalho no corte da cana-de-a√ß√ļcar queimada e n√£o queimada na sa√ļde do cortador. O grupo final de manuscritos foi selecionado pelo autor principal deste estudo e revisado por um coautor. As discord√Ęncias foram resolvidas por consenso usando os crit√©rios de inclus√£o e exclus√£o predefinidos e, quando necess√°rio, a decis√£o final foi realizada consultando um terceiro coautor. RESULTADOS: De 89 artigos encontrados, 52 atenderam aos crit√©rios de sele√ß√£o e foram avaliados. Os estudos mostraram que os cortadores trabalham em condi√ß√Ķes de sobrecarga f√≠sica e mental, sobrecarga t√©rmica, exposi√ß√£o a poluentes e sujeitos a acidentes. Os principais efeitos observados foram respirat√≥rios, cardiovasculares, renais, osteomusculares, estresse por calor, desidrata√ß√£o, genot√≥xicos e decorrente de acidentes. CONCLUS√ēES: O trabalho no corte manual da cana-de-a√ß√ļcar, principalmente da cana-de-a√ß√ļcar queimada, exp√Ķem os trabalhadores a diversos riscos, com variados impactos √† sa√ļde. A redu√ß√£o de riscos com exposi√ß√£o √† polui√ß√£o e sobrecarga t√©rmica e f√≠sica se imp√Ķe como medida para preserva√ß√£o da sa√ļde do trabalhador

    Sugarcane cutting work, risks, and health effects: a literature review

    Get PDF
    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Describe the main work risks for sugarcane cutters and their effects on workers‚Äô health. METHODS Critical review of articles, with bibliographic research carried out in the PubMed, SciELO Medline, and Lilacs databases. The following keywords were used: sugarcane workers, sugarcane cutters, sugarcane harvesting, cortadores de cana-de-a√ß√ļ car , and colheita de cana -de-a√ß√ļcar . The inclusion criteria were articles published between January 1997 and June 2017, which evaluated working conditions and health effects on sugarcane cutters. Those that did not deal with the work impact of cutting burned and unburnt sugarcane in the cutter‚Äôs health were excluded. The final group of manuscripts was selected by the lead author of this study and reviewed by a co-author. Disagreements were resolved by consensus using the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria and, where necessary, the final decision was made by consulting a third co-author. RESULTS From the 89 articles found, 52 met the selection criteria and were evaluated. Studies have shown that cutters work under conditions of physical and mental overload, thermal overload, exposure to pollutants, and are subject to accidents. The main effects observed were respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, musculoskeletal, heat stress, dehydration, genotoxic, and those due to accidents. CONCLUSIONS Work on the manual cutting of sugarcane, especially of burned sugarcane, exposes workers to various risks, with different health impacts. Risk reduction for exposure to pollution and thermal and physical overload is required as a measure to preserve the health of the worker

    Evaluation of peak expiratory flow in adolescents and its association with inhalable particulate in a Brazilian medium-sized city

    No full text
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: High particulate matter (PM10) concentrations are associated with increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. This study evaluates the air pollution effects in children‚Äôs and adolescents‚Äô lung function using peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements over a given period, in an area exposed to industrial emissions. Methodology: This was a panel study. The effects of air pollution on respiratory symptoms and PEF were investigated in 117 children and adolescents from three public schools in areas of exposure to air pollution from a mining company in a Brazilian medium-sized city, from 2008 to 2009. The average daily PM10, temperature and humidity were recorded by the monitoring network in the region. Association between daily records of PEF and PM10 was assessed in mixed-effect regression models, controlling for temperature, humidity, and body mass index. Results: About 60,000 PEF measurements were performed. Increases of 14¬Ķg/m3 in PM10 were associated with decreased PEF in the morning (-1.04%, 95%CI -1.32; -0.77) and evening (-1.2%, 95%CI -1.49, -0.92). Discussion: We found a significant negative association between particulate matter and peak expiratory flow rate in this population, and these remained significant even after adjusted for temperature, humidity, body mass index, coughing, wheezing and coryza. Conclusion: Adverse effects were found and it suggests an association between increase in PM10 and reduced lung function

    Plant litter dynamics in the forest-stream interface: Precipitation is a major control across tropical biomes

    Get PDF
    Riparian plant litter is a major energy source for forested streams across the world and its decomposition has repercussions on nutrient cycling, food webs and ecosystem functioning. However, we know little about plant litter dynamics in tropical streams, even though the tropics occupy 40% of the Earth's land surface. Here we investigated spatial and temporal (along a year cycle) patterns of litter inputs and storage in multiple streams of three tropical biomes in Brazil (Atlantic forest, Amazon forest and Cerrado savanna), predicting major differences among biomes in relation to temperature and precipitation regimes. Precipitation explained most of litter inputs and storage, which were generally higher in more humid biomes (litterfall: 384, 422 and 308 g m-2 y-1, storage: 55, 113 and 38 g m-2, on average in Atlantic forest, Amazon and Cerrado, respectively). Temporal dynamics varied across biomes in relation to precipitation and temperature, with uniform litter inputs but seasonal storage in Atlantic forest streams, seasonal inputs in Amazon and Cerrado streams, and aseasonal storage in Amazon streams. Our findings suggest that litter dynamics vary greatly within the tropics, but point to the major role of precipitation, which contrasts with the main influence of temperature in temperate areas. © 2017 The Author(s)

    The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation in smokers and subjects enrolled in a Smoking Cessation Program (referred to as quitters). METHOD: A total of 33 subjects with a median (IQR) smoking history of 34 (20-58) pack years were examined for nasal mucociliary clearance using a saccharine transit test, mucus properties using contact angle and sneeze clearability tests, and quantification of inflammatory and epithelial cells, IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations in nasal lavage fluid. Twenty quitters (mean age: 51 years, 9 male) were assessed at baseline, 1 month, 3 months and 12 months after smoking cessation, and 13 smokers (mean age: 52 years, 6 male) were assessed at baseline and after 12 months. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02136550. RESULTS: Smokers and quitters showed similar demographic characteristics and morbidities. At baseline, all subjects showed impaired nasal mucociliary clearance (mean 17.6 min), although 63% and 85% of the quitters demonstrated significant nasal mucociliary clearance improvement at 1 month and 12 months, respectively. At 12 months, quitters also showed mucus sneeze clearability improvement (‚ąľ26%), an increased number of macrophages (2-fold) and no changes in mucus contact angle or cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking cessation induced early improvements in nasal mucociliary clearance independent of mucus properties and inflammation. Changes in mucus properties were observed after only 12 months of smoking cessation
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore