103 research outputs found

    Insights on the Multifaceted Roles of Wild-Type and Mutated Superoxide Dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis

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    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disease. Cell damage in ALS is the result of many different, largely unknown, pathogenetic mechanisms. Astrocytes and microglial cells play a critical role also for their ability to enhance a deranged inflammatory response. Excitotoxicity, due to excessive glutamate levels and increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration, has also been proposed to play a key role in ALS pathogenesis/progression. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) behave as key second messengers for multiple receptor/ligand interactions. ROS-dependent regulatory networks are usually mediated by peroxides. Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) physiologically mediates intracellular peroxide generation. About 10% of ALS subjects show a familial disease associated with different gain-of-function SOD1 mutations. The occurrence of sporadic ALS, not clearly associated with SOD1 defects, has been also described. SOD1-dependent pathways have been involved in neuron functional network as well as in immune-response regulation. Both, neuron depolarization and antigen-dependent T-cell activation mediate SOD1 exocytosis, inducing increased interaction of the enzyme with a complex molecular network involved in the regulation of neuron functional activity and immune response. Here, alteration of SOD1-dependent pathways mediating increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, altered mitochondria functions and defective inflammatory process regulation have been proposed to be relevant for ALS pathogenesis/progression

    Dietary Polyphenols, Microbiome, and Multiple Sclerosis: From Molecular Anti-Inflammatory and Neuroprotective Mechanisms to Clinical Evidence

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    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial, immune-mediated disease caused by complex gene-environment interactions. Dietary factors modulating the inflammatory status through the control of the metabolic and inflammatory pathways and the composition of commensal gut microbiota, are among the main environmental factors involved in the pathogenesis of MS. There is no etiological therapy for MS and the drugs currently used, often accompanied by major side effects, are represented by immunomodulatory substances capable of modifying the course of the disease. For this reason, nowadays, more attention is paid to alternative therapies with natural substances with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, as adjuvants of classical therapies. Among natural substances with beneficial effects on human health, polyphenols are assuming an increasing interest due to their powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Beneficial properties of polyphenols on the CNS are achieved through direct effects depending on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and indirect effects exerted in part via interaction with the microbiota. The aim of this review is to examine the literature about the molecular mechanism underlying the protective effects of polyphenols in MS achieved by experiments conducted in vitro and in animal models of the disease. Significant data have been accumulated for resveratrol, curcumin, luteolin, quercetin, and hydroxytyrosol, and therefore we will focus on the results obtained with these polyphenols. Clinical evidence for the use of polyphenols as adjuvant therapy in MS is restricted to a smaller number of substances, mainly curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate. In the last part of the review, a clinical trial studying the effects of these polyphenols in MS patients will also be revised

    Superoxide Dismutase-1 intracellular content in T lymphocytes associates with increased Regulatory T Cell level in Multiple Sclerosis subjects undergoing immune-modulating treatment.

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    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) participate in the T-cell activation processes. ROS-dependent regulatory networks are usually mediated by peroxides, which are more stable and able to freely migrate inside cells. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 represents the major physiological intracellular source of peroxides. We found that antigen-dependent activation represents a triggering element for SOD-1 production and secretion by human T lymphocytes. A deranged T-cell proinflammatory response characterizes the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). We previously observed a decreased SOD-1 intracellular content in leukocytes of MS individuals at diagnosis, with increasing amounts of such enzyme after interferon (IFN)-b 1b treatment. Here, we analyzed in depth SOD-1 intracellular content in T cells in a cohort of MS individuals undergoing immune-modulating treatment. Higher amounts of the enzyme were associated with increased availability of regulatory T cells (Treg) preferentially expressing Foxp3-exon 2 (Foxp3-E2), as described for effective Treg. In vitro administration of recombinant human SOD-1 to activated T cells, significantly increased their IL-17 production, while SOD-1 molecules lacking dismutase activity were unable to interfere with cytokine production by activated T cells in vitro. Furthermore, hydrogen peroxide addition was observed to mimic, in vitro, the SOD-1 effect on IL-17 production. These data add SOD-1 to the molecules involved in the molecular pathways contributing to re-shaping the T-cell cytokine profile and Treg differentiation

    Rab 4 affects both recycling and degradative endosomal trafficking

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    Abstract The small GTPases Rab4, Rab5 and Rab7 are endosomal proteins which play important roles in the regulation of various stages of endosomal trafficking. Rab4 and Rab5 have both been localized to early endosomes and have been shown to control recycling and endosomal fusion, respectively. Rab7, a marker of the late endosomal compartment, is involved in the regulation of the late endocytic pathway. Here, we compare the role of Rab4, Rab5 and Rab7 in early and late endosomal trafficking in HeLa cells monitoring ligand uptake, recycling and degradation. Expression of the Rab4 dominant negative mutant (Rab4AS22N) leads to a significant reduction in both recycling and degradation while, as expected, Rab7 mutants exclusively affect epidermal growth factor (EGF) and low density lipoprotein degradation. As also expected, expression of the dominant negative Rab5 mutant perturbs internalization kinetics and affects both recycling and degradation. Expression of Rab4WT and dominant positive mutant (Rab4AQ67L) changes dramati- cally the morphology of the transferrin compartment leading to the formation of membrane tubules. These transferrin positive tubules display swellings (varicosities) some of which are positive for early endosomal antigen-1 and contain EGF. We propose that the Rab4GTPase is important for the function of the early sorting endosomal compartment, affecting trafficking along both recycling and degradative pathways

    5-Hydroxytryptamine Modulates Maturation and Mitochondria Function of Human Oligodendrocyte Progenitor M03-13 Cells

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    Inside the adult CNS, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCS) are able to proliferate, migrate and differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes (OLs) which are responsible for the production of myelin sheet and energy supply for neurons. Moreover, in demyelinating diseases, OPCs are recruited to the lesion areas where they undergo differentiation and myelin synthesis. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is involved in OLs’ development and myelination, but so far the molecular mechanisms involved or the effects of 5-HT on mitochondria function have not yet been well documented. Our data show that 5-HT inhibits migration and proliferation committing cells toward differentiation in an immortalized human oligodendrocyte precursor cell line, M03-13. Migration blockage is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation since antioxidants, such as Vit C and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, prevent the inhibitory effects of 5-HT on cell migration. 5-HT inhibits OPC migration and proliferation and increases OL phenotypic markers myelin basic protein (MBP) and Olig-2 via protein kinase C (PKC) activation since the inhibitor of PKC, bis-indolyl-maleimide (BIM), counteracts 5-HT effects. NOX inhibitors as well, reverse the effects of 5-HT, indicating that 5-HT influences the maturation process of OPCs by NOX-dependent ROS production. Finally, 5-HT increases mitochondria function and antioxidant activity. The identification of the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of 5-HT on maturation and energy metabolism of OPCs could pave the way for the development of new treatments for autoimmune demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis where oligodendrocytes are the primary target of immune attack

    The Effects of Angiotensin II or Angiotensin 1-7 on Rat Pial Microcirculation during Hypoperfusion and Reperfusion Injury: Role of Redox Stress

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    Renin-angiotensin systems produce angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7), which are able to induce opposite effects on circulation. This study in vivo assessed the effects induced by Ang II or Ang 1-7 on rat pial microcirculation during hypoperfusion-reperfusion, clarifying the mechanisms causing the imbalance between Ang II and Ang 1-7. The fluorescence microscopy was used to quantify the microvascular parameters. Hypoperfusion and reperfusion caused vasoconstriction, disruption of blood-brain barrier, reduction of capillary perfusion and an increase in reactive oxygen species production. Rats treated with Ang II showed exacerbated microvascular damage with stronger vasoconstriction compared to hypoperfused rats, a further increase in leakage, higher decrease in capillary perfusion and marker oxidative stress. Candesartan cilexetil (specific Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antagonist) administration prior to Ang II prevented the effects induced by Ang II, blunting the hypoperfusion-reperfusion injury. Ang 1-7 or ACE2 activator administration, preserved the pial microcirculation from hypoperfusion-reperfusion damage. These effects of Ang 1-7 were blunted by a Mas (Mas oncogene-encoded protein) receptor antagonist, while Ang II type 2 receptor antagonists did not affect Ang 1-7-induced changes. In conclusion, Ang II and Ang 1-7 triggered different mechanisms through AT1R or MAS receptors able to affect cerebral microvascular injury

    The Cholinergic and ACE-2-Dependent Anti-Inflammatory Systems in the Lung: New Scenarios Emerging From COVID-19

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    The renin angiotensin system and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway have been recently shown to modulate lung inflammation in patients with COVID-19. We will show how studies performed on this disease are starting to provide evidence that these two anti-inflammatory systems may functionally interact with each other, a mechanism that could have a more general physiological relevance than only COVID-19 infection

    Effect of mutated Cu, Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD1G93A) on modulation of transductional pathway mediated by M1 muscarinic receptor in SK-N-BE and NSC-34 cells

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    The constitutive secretion of antioxidant Cu-Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been widely demonstrated in many cellular lines. In addition, we showed that as well as the basal SOD1 secretion, this enzyme is also exported through depolarization of excitable cells by high extracellular K concentration. Recent data showed that SOD1 was able to activate muscarinic M1 receptor producing the activation, via phospholipase C, of ERK1-2 and AKT pathways. It is also known that about 20% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) is due to mutations in the gene coding for SOD1. The aim of the present research is to evaluate whether, analogously to wild type SOD1 (SOD1wt), the mutated form of SOD1G93A is able to activate ERK1-2 and AKT through muscarinic M1 receptor in SK-N-BE as well as in motoneuron like NSC-34. Our results demonstrated that in NSC-34 and SK-N-BE cells mutated SOD1G93A carried out a more evident activation of ERK1-2 and AKT and a stronger increase of intracellular calcium levels compared to SOD1WT; we also demonstrated that these effects are mediated by the M1 receptor as shown using pirenzepine, a specific M1 inhibitor and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Of note, M1 receptor pathway activation by SOD1G93A, but not by SOD1WT, is associated with both an increase of reactive oxygen species and a cytotoxic effect
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