1,462 research outputs found

    Exploring the clinical features and risk factors for children tinea capitis complicated with allergic diseases.

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    BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis are the most common disorders endured by prepubescent children. Dermatophyte infections have been linked to allergic disorders, such as increased sensitivity to dermatophytes in patients with atopic dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To explore the correlation between tinea capitis and allergic diseases in children and to analyse their risk factors. METHODS: This study monitored epidemiological changes in childhood tinea capitis and risk factors for whom with allergic disease in a single centre in three consecutive five-year intervals by reviewing clinical data and multivariate logistic data analysis. RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2022, there were 127 children patients with tinea capitis, the mean age was 4.83‚ÄČyears, and the male-to-female ratio was 1.76:1. Zoophilic Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes were the most prevalent pathogens, and the proportions remained relatively constant every 5‚ÄČyears. There were 34 (26.8%) children with tinea capitis complicated with allergic disease, among them 14 children with atopic dermatitis/eczema, 13 with allergic rhinitis, 8 urticaria, 6 food allergies and 1 allergic asthma. Male, kerion, zoophilic species infections and animal contact history were prevalent features in allergic disease combined with tinea capitis. Patients with tinea capitis plus allergic disease mostly had a family history with similar complications. CONCLUSION: M. canis and T. mentagrophytes were the most prevalent pathogens of tinea capitis in the last 15‚ÄČyears; atopic dermatitis/eczema and allergic rhinitis were the most frequently associated allergic diseases. Male, kerion, zoophilic pathogen and animal contact history are risk factors

    Sugarcane: an unexpected habitat for black yeasts in Chaetothyriales

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    Abstract Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum, Poaceae) is cultivated on a large scale in (sub)tropical regions such as Brazil and has considerable economic value for sugar and biofuel production. The plant is a rich substrate for endo- and epiphytic fungi. Black yeasts in the family Herpotrichiellaceae (Chaetothyriales) are colonizers of human-dominated habitats, particularly those rich in toxins and hydrocarbon pollutants, and may cause severe infections in susceptible human hosts. The present study assessed the diversity of Herpotrichiellaceae associated with sugarcane, using in silico identification and selective isolation. Using metagenomics, we identified 5833 fungal sequences, while 639 black yeast-like isolates were recovered in vitro. In both strategies, the latter fungi were identified as members of the genera Cladophialophora, Exophiala, and Rhinocladiella (Herpotrichiellaceae), Cyphellophora (Cyphellophoraceae), and Knufia (Trichomeriaceae). In addition, we discovered new species of Cladophialophora and Exophiala from sugarcane and its rhizosphere. The first environmental isolation of Cladophialophora bantiana is particularly noteworthy, because this species up to now is exclusively known from the human host where it mostly causes fatal brain disease in otherwise healthy patients

    Fatal dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in a patient with non-HIV CD4 lymphocytopenia.

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    Dermatophytic pseudomycetoma is a rare invasive infection, involving both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Since the discovery of inherited immune disorders such as the impairment of CARD9 gene, extended dermatophyte infections are mostly ascribed to any of these host factors. This study is to present and explore the potential causes in a fatal dermatophytic pseudomycetoma patient. We present a chronic and deep pseudomycetoma caused by the common dermatophyte Microsporum canis which ultimately led to the death of the patient. Mycological examination, genetic studies and host immune responses against fungi were performed to explore the potential factors. The patient had decreased lymphocyte counts with significantly reduced CD4(+) T cells, although all currently known genetic parameters proved to be normal. Through functional studies, we demonstrated that peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the patient showed severe impairment of adaptive cytokine production upon fungus-specific stimulation, whereas innate immune responses were partially defective. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of fatal dermatophytic pseudomycetoma in a patient with non-HIV CD4 lymphocytopenia, which highlights the importance of screening for immune deficiencies in patients with deep dermatophytosis

    A 12-gene pharmacogenetic panel to prevent adverse drug reactions: an open-label, multicentre, controlled, cluster-randomised crossover implementation study

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    ¬© 2023Background: The benefit of pharmacogenetic testing before starting drug therapy has been well documented for several single gene‚Äďdrug combinations. However, the clinical utility of a pre-emptive genotyping strategy using a pharmacogenetic panel has not been rigorously assessed. Methods: We conducted an open-label, multicentre, controlled, cluster-randomised, crossover implementation study of a 12-gene pharmacogenetic panel in 18 hospitals, nine community health centres, and 28 community pharmacies in seven European countries (Austria, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK). Patients aged 18 years or older receiving a first prescription for a drug clinically recommended in the guidelines of the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group (ie, the index drug) as part of routine care were eligible for inclusion. Exclusion criteria included previous genetic testing for a gene relevant to the index drug, a planned duration of treatment of less than 7 consecutive days, and severe renal or liver insufficiency. All patients gave written informed consent before taking part in the study. Participants were genotyped for 50 germline variants in 12 genes, and those with an actionable variant (ie, a drug‚Äďgene interaction test result for which the Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group [DPWG] recommended a change to standard-of-care drug treatment) were treated according to DPWG recommendations. Patients in the control group received standard treatment. To prepare clinicians for pre-emptive pharmacogenetic testing, local teams were educated during a site-initiation visit and online educational material was made available. The primary outcome was the occurrence of clinically relevant adverse drug reactions within the 12-week follow-up period. Analyses were irrespective of patient adherence to the DPWG guidelines. The primary analysis was done using a gatekeeping analysis, in which outcomes in people with an actionable drug‚Äďgene interaction in the study group versus the control group were compared, and only if the difference was statistically significant was an analysis done that included all of the patients in the study. Outcomes were compared between the study and control groups, both for patients with an actionable drug‚Äďgene interaction test result (ie, a result for which the DPWG recommended a change to standard-of-care drug treatment) and for all patients who received at least one dose of index drug. The safety analysis included all participants who received at least one dose of a study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03093818 and is closed to new participants. Findings: Between March 7, 2017, and June 30, 2020, 41 696 patients were assessed for eligibility and 6944 (51¬∑4 % female, 48¬∑6% male; 97¬∑7% self-reported European, Mediterranean, or Middle Eastern ethnicity) were enrolled and assigned to receive genotype-guided drug treatment (n=3342) or standard care (n=3602). 99 patients (52 [1¬∑6%] of the study group and 47 [1¬∑3%] of the control group) withdrew consent after group assignment. 652 participants (367 [11¬∑0%] in the study group and 285 [7¬∑9%] in the control group) were lost to follow-up. In patients with an actionable test result for the index drug (n=1558), a clinically relevant adverse drug reaction occurred in 152 (21¬∑0%) of 725 patients in the study group and 231 (27¬∑7%) of 833 patients in the control group (odds ratio [OR] 0¬∑70 [95% CI 0¬∑54‚Äď0¬∑91]; p=0¬∑0075), whereas for all patients, the incidence was 628 (21¬∑5%) of 2923 patients in the study group and 934 (28¬∑6%) of 3270 patients in the control group (OR 0¬∑70 [95% CI 0¬∑61‚Äď0¬∑79]; p <0¬∑0001). Interpretation: Genotype-guided treatment using a 12-gene pharmacogenetic panel significantly reduced the incidence of clinically relevant adverse drug reactions and was feasible across diverse European health-care system organisations and settings. Large-scale implementation could help to make drug therapy increasingly safe. Funding: European Union Horizon 2020

    A taxonomic review of the genus Paracoccidioides, with focus on the uncultivable species.

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    Paracoccidioides species have always been surrounded by taxonomic uncertainties. The continuing nomenclatoral muddle was caused in part by the failure of Adolfo Lutz and Jorge L√ībo to name the etiologic agents of human paracoccidioidomycosis and Jorge L√ībo's diseases, respectively. Early in their history, it was postulated that the cultivable species causing systemic infections belonged in the genus Paracoccidioides, whereas the uncultivable species, causing skin disease, were not part of the genus. The taxonomy of these pathogens was further complicated when a similar skin disease with numerous yeast-like cells in infected dolphins was also reported. Due to its phenotypic similarities with that described by Jorge L√ībo in human and its uncultivable nature, it was assumed that the disease in dolphins was caused by the same fungus. Recent molecular and population genetic analysis, however, found the DNA extracted from the uncultivable yeast-like cells affecting dolphins shared common phylogenetic traits with cultivable Paracoccidioides species. The study revealed that the uncultivable pathogens comprised 2 different Paracoccidioides species, now known as P. ceti and P. loboi, correspondingly. To validate P. loboi binomial, a comprehensive historical critical review of Jorge L√ībo etiology was performed. This review showed the proposed binomial P. loboi was previously used, and, thus, a replacement name is introduced, Paracoccidioides lobogeorgii nom. nov. In addition, in this review, several cultivable human Paracoccidioides species are validated, and the generic type species, P. brasiliensis, is neotypified as the original material could not be traced

    SARS-CoV-2 incidence in secondary schools: the role of national and school-initiated COVID-19 measures

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    INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to gain insight into the effect of COVID-19 measures on SARS-CoV-2 incidence in secondary schools and the association with classroom CO 2 concentration and airborne contamination. METHODS: Between October 2020-June 2021, 18 schools weekly reported SARS-CoV-2 incidence and completed surveys on school-initiated COVID-19 measures (e.g. improving hygiene or minimizing contacts). CO 2 was measured in occupied classrooms twice, and SARS-CoV-2 air contamination longitudinally using electrostatic dust collectors (EDC) and analyzed using RT-qPCR. National COVID-19 policy measures varied during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown periods. During the entire study, schools were recommended to improve ventilation. SARS-CoV-2 incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated by Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models. RESULTS: During 18 weeks follow-up (range: 10-22) SARS-CoV-2 school-incidence decreased during national lockdown (adjusted IRR: 0.41, 95%CI: 0.21-0.80) and post-lockdown (IRR: 0.60, 0.39-0.93) compared to pre-lockdown. School-initiated COVID-19 measures had no additional effect. Pre-lockdown, IRRs per 10% increase in time CO 2 exceeded 400, 550 and 800 ppm above outdoor level respectively, were 1.08 (1.00-1.16), 1.10 (1.02-1.19), and 1.08 (0.95-1.22). Post-lockdown, CO 2-concentrations were considerably lower and not associated with SARS-CoV-2 incidence. No SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in any of the EDC samples. CONCLUSION: During a period with low SARS-CoV-2 population immunity and increased attention to ventilation, with CO 2 levels most of the time below acceptable thresholds, only the national policy during and post-lockdown of reduced class-occupancy, stringent quarantine, and contact testing reduced SARS-CoV-2 incidence in Dutch secondary schools. Widespread SARS-CoV-2 air contamination could not be demonstrated in schools under the prevailing conditions during the study

    Neurocognitive, Psychosocial, and Quality of Life Outcomes After Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Admitted to the PICU

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    OBJECTIVES: To investigate neurocognitive, psychosocial, and quality of life (QoL) outcomes in children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) seen 3-6 months after PICU admission. DESIGN: National prospective cohort study March 2020 to November 2021. SETTING: Seven PICUs in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: Children with MIS-C (0-17 yr) admitted to a PICU.None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Children and/or parents were seen median (interquartile range [IQR] 4 mo [3-5 mo]) after PICU admission. Testing included assessment of neurocognitive, psychosocial, and QoL outcomes with reference to Dutch pre-COVID-19 general population norms. Effect sizes (Hedges' g ) were used to indicate the strengths and clinical relevance of differences: 0.2 small, 0.5 medium, and 0.8 and above large. Of 69 children with MIS-C, 49 (median age 11.6 yr [IQR 9.3-15.6 yr]) attended follow-up. General intelligence and verbal memory scores were normal compared with population norms. Twenty-nine of the 49 followed-up (59%) underwent extensive testing with worse function in domains such as visual memory, g = 1.0 (95% CI, 0.6-1.4), sustained attention, g = 2.0 (95% CI 1.4-2.4), and planning, g = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.1-0.9). The children also had more emotional and behavioral problems, g = 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-0.7), and had lower QoL scores in domains such as physical functioning g = 1.3 (95% CI 0.9-1.6), school functioning g = 1.1 (95% CI 0.7-1.4), and increased fatigue g = 0.5 (95% CI 0.1-0.9) compared with population norms. Elevated risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was seen in 10 of 30 children (33%) with MIS-C. Last, in the 32 parents, no elevated risk for PTSD was found. CONCLUSIONS: Children with MIS-C requiring PICU admission had normal overall intelligence 4 months after PICU discharge. Nevertheless, these children reported more emotional and behavioral problems, more PTSD, and worse QoL compared with general population norms. In a subset undergoing more extensive testing, we also identified irregularities in neurocognitive functions. Whether these impairments are caused by the viral or inflammatory response, the PICU admission, or COVID-19 restrictions remains to be investigated

    A scoping review of mycetoma profile in Egypt: revisiting the global endemicity map.

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    Mycetoma is a chronic infectious disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), India and parts of South and North America. The epidemiologic profile of the disease in Egypt, which neighbours SSA, has not been explored previously. Therefore we conducted a scoping review of the literature on mycetoma in Egypt. We searched the literature comprehensively on MEDLINE and Google Scholar using free-text words and Medical Subject Headings and terms. Both published and non-peer-reviewed (grey literature) articles were included. The initial search identified 133 reports. Of these, only eight were found to be relevant and were included in the study. The total number of mycetoma patients was 59, reported between 1949 and 2015. There was a predilection for eumycetoma (44 of 59) patients (75%), while actinomycetoma constituted 15 patients (25%). Six patients were female, 28 were male and 25 were unreported. Children and adolescents constituted 3 of 59 (5%), 52 (88%) were adults and age was not provided for 4 patients. Only four patients (7%) were non-autochthonous. The incidence of mycetoma in Egypt is higher than previously reported. Egypt is probably a low-endemic country. An accurate estimate of the prevalence and epidemiology of mycetoma necessitates further research collaboration
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