1,106 research outputs found

    Progression of the FIB-4 index among patients with chronic HCV infection and early liver disease

    No full text
    Abstract: Background and aims Historical paired liver biopsy studies are likely to underestimate current progression of disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to assess liver disease progression according to the non-invasive Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in patients with chronic HCV and early disease. Methods and results Patients diagnosed with chronic HCV and FIB-4 3.25 during follow-up. Survival analyses were used to assess time to FIB-4 >3.25. In total, 4286 patients were followed for a median of 5.0 (IQR 1.7\u20139.4) years, during which 41 071 FIB-4 measurements were collected. At baseline, median age was 47 (IQR 39\u201355) years, 2529 (59.0%) were male, and 2787 (65.0%) patients had a FIB-4 <1.45. Advanced liver disease developed in 821 patients. Overall, 10-year cumulative incidence of advanced disease was 32.1% (95% CI 29.9% to 34.3%). Patients who developed advanced disease showed an exponential FIB-4 increase. Among patients with a presumed date of HCV infection, cumulative incidence of advanced disease increased 7.7-fold from 20 to 40 years as opposed to the first 20 years after HCV infection. Conclusions The rate of advanced liver disease is high among chronic HCV-infected patients with early disease at time of diagnosis, among whom liver disease progression accelerated over time. These results emphasise the need to overcome any limitations with respect to diagnosing and treating all patients with chronic HCV across the globe

    Hepatitis D double reflex testing of all hepatitis B carriers in low-HBV- and high-HBV/HDV-prevalence countries

    Get PDF
    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection occurs as a coinfection with hepatitis B and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, decompensated cirrhosis, and mortality compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Reliable estimates of the prevalence of HDV infection and disease burden are essential to formulate strategies to find coinfected individuals more effectively and efficiently. The global prevalence of HBV infections was estimated to be 262,240,000 in 2021. Only 1,994,000 of the HBV infections were newly diagnosed in 2021, with more than half of the new diagnoses made in China. Our initial estimates indicated a much lower prevalence of HDV antibody (anti-HDV) and HDV RNA positivity than previously reported in published studies. Accurate estimates of HDV prevalence are needed. The most effective method to generate estimates of the prevalence of anti-HDV and HDV RNA positivity and to find undiagnosed individuals at the national level is to implement double reflex testing. This requires anti-HDV testing of all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive individuals and HDV RNA testing of all anti-HDV-positive individuals. This strategy is manageable for healthcare systems since the number of newly diagnosed HBV cases is low. At the global level, a comprehensive HDV screening strategy would require only 1,994,000 HDV antibody tests and less than 89,000 HDV PCR tests. Double reflex testing is the preferred strategy in countries with a low prevalence of HBV and those with a high prevalence of both HBV and HDV. For example, in the European Union and North America only 35,000 and 22,000 cases, respectively, will require anti-HDV testing annually

    Progression of the FIB-4 index among patients with chronic HCV infection and early liver disease

    No full text
    Background and aims Historical paired liver biopsy studies are likely to underestimate current progression of disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to assess liver disease progression according to the non-invasive Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in patients with chronic HCV and early disease.Methods and results Patients diagnosed with chronic HCV and FIB-4 &lt;3.25 from four international liver clinics were included in a retrospective cohort study. Follow-up ended at start of antiviral therapy resulting in sustained virological response, at time of liver transplantation or death. Primary outcome of advanced liver disease was defined as FIB-4 &gt;3.25 during follow-up. Survival analyses were used to assess time to FIB-4 &gt;3.25.In total, 4286 patients were followed for a median of 5.0 (IQR 1.7–9.4) years, during which 41 071 FIB-4 measurements were collected. At baseline, median age was 47 (IQR 39–55) years, 2529 (59.0%) were male, and 2787 (65.0%) patients had a FIB-4 &lt;1.45. Advanced liver disease developed in 821 patients. Overall, 10-year cumulative incidence of advanced disease was 32.1% (95% CI 29.9% to 34.3%). Patients who developed advanced disease showed an exponential FIB-4 increase. Among patients with a presumed date of HCV infection, cumulative incidence of advanced disease increased 7.7-fold from 20 to 40 years as opposed to the first 20 years after HCV infection.Conclusions The rate of advanced liver disease is high among chronic HCV-infected patients with early disease at time of diagnosis, among whom liver disease progression accelerated over time. These results emphasise the need to overcome any limitations with respect to diagnosing and treating all patients with chronic HCV across the globe

    CT-radiomics and clinical risk scores for response and overall survival prognostication in TACE HCC patients

    No full text
    Abstract We aimed to identify hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who will respond to repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) to improve the treatment algorithm. Retrospectively, 61 patients (mean age, 65.3 years ± 10.0 [SD]; 49 men) with 94 HCC mRECIST target-lesions who had three consecutive TACE between 01/2012 and 01/2020 were included. Robust and non-redundant radiomics features were extracted from the 24 h post-embolization CT. Five different clinical TACE-scores were assessed. Seven different feature selection methods and machine learning models were used. Radiomics, clinical and combined models were built to predict response to TACE on a lesion-wise and patient-wise level as well as its impact on overall-survival prognostication. 29 target-lesions of 19 patients were evaluated in the test set. Response rates were 37.9% (11/29) on the lesion-level and 42.1% (8/19) on the patient-level. Radiomics top lesion-wise response prognostications was AUC 0.55–0.67. Clinical scores revealed top AUCs of 0.65–0.69. The best working model combined the radiomic feature LargeDependenceHighGrayLevelEmphasis and the clinical score mHAP_II_score_group with AUC = 0.70, accuracy = 0.72. We transferred this model on a patient-level to achieve AUC = 0.62, CI = 0.41–0.83. The two radiomics-clinical features revealed overall-survival prognostication of C-index = 0.67. In conclusion, a random forest model using the radiomic feature LargeDependenceHighGrayLevelEmphasis and the clinical mHAP-II-score-group seems promising for TACE response prognostication

    Hepatitis D double reflex testing of all hepatitis B carriers in low-HBV- and high-HBV/HDV-prevalence countries

    No full text
    : Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection occurs as a coinfection with hepatitis B and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, decompensated cirrhosis, and mortality compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Reliable estimates of the prevalence of HDV infection and disease burden are essential to formulate strategies to find coinfected individuals more effectively and efficiently. The global prevalence of HBV infections was estimated to be 262,240,000 in 2021. Only 1,994,000 of the HBV infections were newly diagnosed in 2021, with more than half of the new diagnoses made in China. Our initial estimates indicated a much lower prevalence of HDV antibody (anti-HDV) and HDV RNA positivity than previously reported in published studies. Accurate estimates of HDV prevalence are needed. The most effective method to generate estimates of the prevalence of anti-HDV and HDV RNA positivity and to find undiagnosed individuals at the national level is to implement double reflex testing. This requires anti-HDV testing of all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive individuals and HDV RNA testing of all anti-HDV-positive individuals. This strategy is manageable for healthcare systems since the number of newly diagnosed HBV cases is low. At the global level, a comprehensive HDV screening strategy would require only 1,994,000 HDV antibody tests and less than 89,000 HDV PCR tests. Double reflex testing is the preferred strategy in countries with a low prevalence of HBV and those with a high prevalence of both HBV and HDV. For example, in the European Union and North America only 35,000 and 22,000 cases, respectively, will require anti-HDV testing annually

    Hepatitis D double reflex testing of all hepatitis B carriers in low-HBV- and high-HBV/HDV-prevalence countries

    No full text
    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection occurs as a coinfection with hepatitis B and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, decompensated cirrhosis, and mortality compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Reliable estimates of the prevalence of HDV infection and disease burden are essential to formulate strategies to find coinfected individuals more effectively and efficiently. The global prevalence of HBV infections was estimated to be 262,240,000 in 2021. Only 1,994,000 of the HBV infections were newly diagnosed in 2021, with more than half of the new diagnoses made in China. Our initial estimates indicated a much lower prevalence of HDV antibody (anti-HDV) and HDV RNA positivity than previously reported in published studies. Accurate estimates of HDV prevalence are needed. The most effective method to generate estimates of the prevalence of anti-HDV and HDV RNA positivity and to find undiagnosed individuals at the national level is to implement double reflex testing. This requires anti-HDV testing of all hepatitis B surface antigen-positive individuals and HDV RNA testing of all anti-HDV-positive individuals. This strategy is manageable for healthcare systems since the number of newly diagnosed HBV cases is low. At the global level, a comprehensive HDV screening strategy would require only 1,994,000 HDV antibody tests and less than 89,000 HDV PCR tests. Double reflex testing is the preferred strategy in countries with a low prevalence of HBV and those with a high prevalence of both HBV and HDV. For example, in the European Union and North America only 35,000 and 22,000 cases, respectively, will require anti-HDV testing annually

    Progression of the FIB-4 index among patients with chronic HCV infection and early liver disease

    Get PDF
    Background and aims:Historical paired liver biopsy studies are likely to underestimate current progression of disease in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We aimed to assess liver disease progression according to the non-invasive Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index in patients with chronic HCV and early disease. Methods and results:Patients diagnosed with chronic HCV and FIB-4 &lt;3.25 from four international liver clinics were included in a retrospective cohort study. Follow-up ended at start of antiviral therapy resulting in sustained virological response, at time of liver transplantation or death. Primary outcome of advanced liver disease was defined as FIB-4 &gt;3.25 during follow-up. Survival analyses were used to assess time to FIB-4 &gt;3.25. In total, 4286 patients were followed for a median of 5.0 (IQR 1.7-9.4) years, during which 41 071 FIB-4 measurements were collected. At baseline, median age was 47 (IQR 39-55) years, 2529 (59.0%) were male, and 2787 (65.0%) patients had a FIB-4 &lt;1.45. Advanced liver disease developed in 821 patients. Overall, 10-year cumulative incidence of advanced disease was 32.1% (95% CI 29.9% to 34.3%). Patients who developed advanced disease showed an exponential FIB-4 increase. Among patients with a presumed date of HCV infection, cumulative incidence of advanced disease increased 7.7-fold from 20 to 40 years as opposed to the first 20 years after HCV infection. Conclusions:The rate of advanced liver disease is high among chronic HCV-infected patients with early disease at time of diagnosis, among whom liver disease progression accelerated over time. These results emphasise the need to overcome any limitations with respect to diagnosing and treating all patients with chronic HCV across the globe.</p

    Pulmonary impairment independently determines mortality in critically ill patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

    No full text
    Background & Aims: In ACLF patients, an adequate risk stratification is essential, especially for liver transplant allocation, since ACLF is associated with high short-term mortality. The CLIF-C ACLF score is the best prognostic model to predict outcome in ACLF patients. While lung failure is generally regarded as signum malum in ICU care, this study aims to evaluate and quantify the role of pulmonary impairment on outcome in ACLF patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, 498 patients with liver cirrhosis and admission to IMC/ICU were included. ACLF was defined according to EASL-CLIF criteria. Pulmonary impairment was classified into three groups: unimpaired ventilation, need for mechanical ventilation and defined pulmonary failure. These factors were analysed in different cohorts, including a propensity score-matched ACLF cohort. Results: Mechanical ventilation and pulmonary failure were identified as independent risk factors for increased short-term mortality. In matched ACLF patients, the presence of pulmonary failure showed the highest 28-day mortality (83.7%), whereas mortality rates in ACLF with mechanical ventilation (67.3%) and ACLF without pulmonary impairment (38.8%) were considerably lower (p < .001). Especially in patients with pulmonary impairment, the CLIF-C ACLF score showed poor predictive accuracy. Adjusting the CLIF-C ACLF score for the grade of pulmonary impairment improved the prediction significantly. Conclusions: This study highlights that not only pulmonary failure but also mechanical ventilation is associated with worse prognosis in ACLF patients. The grade of pulmonary impairment should be considered in the risk assessment in ACLF patients. The new score may be useful in the selection of patients for liver transplantation

    Etrolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis in patients previously treated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (HICKORY): a phase 3, randomised, controlled trial

    No full text
    Background: Etrolizumab is a gut-targeted, anti-β7 integrin, monoclonal antibody. In an earlier phase 2 induction study, etrolizumab significantly improved clinical remission compared with placebo in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of etrolizumab in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis who had been previously treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents. Methods: HICKORY was a multicentre, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult (18–80 years) patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (Mayo Clinic total score [MCS] of 6–12 with an endoscopic subscore of ≥2, a rectal bleeding subscore of ≥1, and a stool frequency subscore of ≥1) previously treated with TNF inhibitors. Patients were recruited from 184 treatment centres across 24 countries in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East. Patients needed to have an established diagnosis of ulcerative colitis for at least 3 months, corroborated by both clinical and endoscopic evidence, and evidence of disease extending at least 20 cm from the anal verge. In cohort 1, patients received open-label etrolizumab 105 mg every 4 weeks for a 14-week induction period. In cohort 2, patients were randomly assigned (4:1) to receive subcutaneous etrolizumab 105 mg or placebo every 4 weeks for the 14-week induction phase. Patients in either cohort achieving clinical response to etrolizumab induction were eligible for the maintenance phase, in which they were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous etrolizumab 105 mg or placebo every 4 weeks through to week 66. Randomisation was stratified by baseline concomitant treatment with corticosteroids, concomitant treatment with immunosuppressants (induction randomisation only), baseline disease activity, week 14 MCS remission status (maintenance randomisation only), and induction cohort (maintenance randomisation only). All patients and study site personnel were masked to treatment assignment. Primary endpoints were remission (Mayo Clinic total score [MCS] ≤2, with individual subscores of ≤1 and a rectal bleeding subscore of 0) at week 14, and remission at week 66 among patients with a clinical response (MCS with ≥3-point decrease and ≥30% reduction from baseline, plus ≥1 point decrease in rectal bleeding subscore or absolute rectal bleeding score of 0 or 1) at week 14. Efficacy was analysed using a modified intent-to-treat population. Safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of study drug during the induction phase. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02100696. Findings: HICKORY was conducted from May 21, 2014, to April 16, 2020, during which time 1081 patients were screened, and 609 deemed eligible for inclusion. 130 patients were included in cohort 1. In cohort 2,479 patients were randomly assigned to the induction phase (etrolizumab n=384, placebo n=95). 232 patients were randomly assigned to the maintenance phase (etrolizumab to etrolizumab n=117, etrolizumab to placebo n=115). At week 14, 71 (18·5%) of 384 patients in the etrolizumab group and six (6·3%) of 95 patients in the placebo group achieved the primary induction endpoint of remission (p=0·0033). No significant difference between etrolizumab and placebo was observed for the primary maintenance endpoint of remission at week 66 among patients with a clinical response at week 14 (27 [24·1%] of 112 vs 23 [20·2%] of 114; p=0·50). Four patients in the etrolizumab group reported treatment-related adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation. The proportion of patients reporting at least adverse event was similar between treatment groups for induction (etrolizumab 253 [66%] of 384; placebo 63 [66%] of 95) and maintenance (etrolizumab to etrolizumab 98 [88%] of 112; etrolizumab to placebo 97 [85%] of 114). The most common adverse event in both groups was ulcerative colitis flare. Most adverse events were mild or moderate. During induction, the most common serious adverse event was ulcerative colitis flare (etrolizumab ten [3%] of 384; placebo: two [2%] of 95). During maintenance, the most common serious adverse event in the etrolizumab to etrolizumab group was appendicitis (two [2%] of 112) and the most common serious adverse events in the etrolizumab to placebo group were ulcerative colitis flare (two [2%] of 114) and anaemia (two [2%] of 114). Interpretation: HICKORY demonstrated that a significantly higher proportion of patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis who had been previously treated with anti-TNF agent were able to achieve remission at week 14 when treated with etrolizumab compared with placebo; however, there was no significant difference between groups in remission at week 66 among patients with a clinical response at week 14. Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche

    Anti-EGFR Reintroduction and Rechallenge in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (mCRC): A Real-World Analysis

    No full text
    Background and Aims: In patients with Rat sarcoma proto-oncogene (RAS) wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies have been established in first- and further therapy lines. Due to limited treatment options upon disease progression, anti-EGFR re-exposure is increasingly employed in real-world oncology. The aim of this study was to assess clinical implementation and utility of anti-EGFR retreatment strategies in real-world mCRC patients. Methods: In this monocentric retrospective study, we included 524 patients with CRC and identified patients who received an anti-EGFR-based treatment as well as anti-EGFR rechallenge (progression on first-line anti-EGFR therapy) or reintroduction (discontinuation due to intolerance/toxicity/other). Results: In total, 143 patients received an anti-EGFR-based first- or second-line treatment, showing a similar overall survival (OS) compared to the non-anti-EGFR treatment group (38.3 vs. 39.6 months, p = 0.88). Thirty-three patients met the inclusion criteria for anti-EGFR re-exposure and were either assigned to rechallenge (n = 21) or reintroduction (n = 12) subgroups. The median FU after re-exposure was 45.8 months. Cetuximab and Panitumumab were used in 21 and 12 patients, respectively, and the main chemotherapy at re-exposure was FOLFIRI in 39.4%. Anti-EGFR re-exposure was associated with a distinct trend towards a better outcome (median OS 56.0 vs. 35.4 months, p = 0.06). In a subgroup comparison, reintroduction was associated with a higher OS and PFS in trend compared to the rechallenge (mOS 66 vs. 52.4, n.s., mPFS 7.33 vs. 3.68 months, n.s.). Conclusions: This retrospective study provides real-world evidence underscoring that anti-EGFR re-exposure strategies might benefit patients independently of the reason for prior discontinuation
    • …
    corecore