7,836 research outputs found

    Test of the fluctuation theorem for stochastic entropy production in a nonequilibrium steady state

    Get PDF
    We derive a simple closed analytical expression for the total entropy production along a single stochastic trajectory of a Brownian particle diffusing on a periodic potential under an external constant force. By numerical simulations we compute the probability distribution functions of the entropy and satisfactorily test many of the predictions based on Seifert's integral fluctuation theorem. The results presented for this simple model clearly illustrate the practical features and implications derived from such a result of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics.Comment: Accepted in Phys. Rev.

    The vicinal difluoro motif : the synthesis and conformation of erythro- and threo-diastereoisomers of 1,2-difluorodiphenylethanes, 2,3-difluorosuccinic acids and their derivatives

    Get PDF
    Background: It is well established that vicinal fluorines (RCHF-CHFR) prefer to adopt a gauche rather than an anti conformation when placed along aliphatic chains. This has been particularly recognised for 1,2-difluoroethane and extends to 2,3-difluorobutane and longer alkyl chains. It follows in these latter cases that if erythro and threo vicinal difluorinated stereoisomers are compared, they will adopt different overall conformations if the fluorines prefer to be gauche in each case. This concept is explored in this paper with erythro- and threo- diastereoisomers of 2,3-difluorosuccinates. Results: A synthetic route to 2,3-difluorosuccinates has been developed through erythro- and threo- 1,2-difluoro-1,2-diphenylethane which involved the oxidation of the aryl rings to generate the corresponding 2,3- difluorosuccinic acids. Ester and amide derivatives of the erythro- and threo- 2,3-difluorosuccinic acids were then prepared. The solid and solution state conformation of these compounds was assessed by X-ray crystallography and NMR. Ab initio calculations were also carried out to model the conformation of erythro- and threo- 1,2-difluoro-1,2-diphenylethane as these differed from the 2,3-difluorosuccinates. Conclusion: In general the overall chain conformations of the 2,3-difluorosuccinates diastereoisomers were found to be influenced by the fluorine gauche effect. The study highlights the prospects of utilising the vicinal difluorine motif (RCHF-CHFR) as a tool for influencing the conformation of performance organic molecules and particularly tuning conformation by selecting specific diastereoisomers (erythro or threo).Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Development and Evaluation of a Mentorship to Hire Program for Facilitating Nursing Role Development and Transition to Practice

    Get PDF
    The purpose of this poster is to present an ongoing community engaged research (CER) initiative at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth College of Nursing (CON) examining in what ways a mentorship to hire (MTH) program with community partners may facilitate role development and transition to practice for senior nursing students and retention in health care organizations upon graduation. New nursing graduates have a difficult time transitioning to practice in part because of unrealistic perceptions about the nursing role. Difficult transitions can be costly to health care organizations (HCO) who often invest time and money in new graduate hires only for them to leave the practice setting after a short period of time. An additional concern is a current and anticipated shortage of nurses in specialty areas such as post-operative, emergency, and psychiatric nursing. As part of the CON curriculum, senior nursing students must complete 120 hours of mentorship in a health care organization during the last semester of their program where students are paired with a professional registered nurse in a one-on-one concentrated practicum. This practicum provides students with clinical experiences and facilitates transitions to practice, however, HCOs often have a limited number of nurses available for precepting our students in part because of an increased demand and competition between nursing schools for clinical placements. In an effort to find a mutually beneficial solution, a mentorship to hire program was proposed and developed between two health care organizations and the CON. This poster will discuss the development of the CER program and plans for assessing transition to practice, perceptions of readiness for practice, role development, and retention of the new graduates upon completion of the program. Furthermore plans for evaluating health care organization perceptions including evaluation of fit for organizations, costs associated with training, and retention will also be presented

    Comparison of Josephson vortex flow transistors with different gate line configurations

    Full text link
    We performed numerical simulations and experiments on Josephson vortex flow transistors based on parallel arrays of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) grain boundary junctions with a cross gate-line allowing to operate the same devices in two different modes named Josephson fluxon transistor (JFT) and Josephson fluxon-antifluxon transistor (JFAT). The simulations yield a general expression for the current gain vs. number of junctions and normalized loop inductance and predict higher current gain for the JFAT. The experiments are in good agreement with simulations and show improved coupling between gate line and junctions for the JFAT as compared to the JFT.Comment: 3 pages, 6 figures, accept. for publication in Appl. Phys. Let

    Li I and K I Scatter in Cool Pleiades Dwarfs

    Get PDF
    We utilize high-resolution (R~60,000), high S/N (~100) spectroscopy of 17 cool Pleiades dwarfs to examine the confounding star-to-star scatter in the 6707 Li I line strengths in this young cluster. Our Pleiads, selected for their small projected rotational velocity and modest chromospheric emission, evince substantial scatter in the linestrengths of 6707 Li I feature that is absent in the 7699 K I resonance line. The Li I scatter is not correlated with that in the high-excitation 7774 O I feature, and the magnitude of the former is greater than the latter despite the larger temperature sensitivity of the O I feature. These results suggest that systematic errors in linestrength measurements due to blending, color (or color-based T_eff) errors, or line formation effects related to an overlying chromosphere are not the principal source of Li I scatter in our stars. There do exist analytic spot models that can produce the observed Li scatter without introducing scatter in the K I line strengths or the color-magnitude diagram. However, these models predict factor of >3 differences in abundances derived from the subordinate 6104 and resonance 6707 Li I features; we find no difference in the abundances determined from these two features. These analytic spot models also predict CN line strengths significantly larger than we observe in our spectra. The simplest explanation of the Li, K, CN, and photometric data is that there must be a real abundance component to the Pleiades Li dispersion. We suggest that this real abundance component is the manifestation of relic differences in erstwhile pre-main-sequence Li burning caused by effects of surface activity on stellar structure. We discuss observational predictions of these effects.Comment: 35 pages, 7 figures; accepted by Ap

    Fluorine in a Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Star

    Full text link
    The fluorine abundance of the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star HE 1305+0132 has been derived by analysis of the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3357 microns in a high-resolution (R = 50,000) spectrum obtained with the Phoenix spectrometer and Gemini-South telescope. Our abundance analysis makes use of a CNO-enhanced ATLAS12 model atmosphere characterized by a metallicity and CNO enhancements determined utilizing medium-resolution (R = 3,000) optical and near-IR spectra. The effective iron abundance is found to be [Fe/H] = -2.5, making HE 1305+0132 the most Fe-deficient star, by more than an order of magnitude, for which the abundance of fluorine has been measured. Using spectral synthesis, we derive a super-solar fluorine abundance of A(19F) = 4.96 +/- 0.21, corresponding to a relative abundance of [F/Fe] = 2.90. A single line of the Phillips C_2 system is identified in our Phoenix spectrum, and along with multiple lines of the first-overtone vibration-rotation CO (3-1) band head, C and O abundances of A(12C) = 8.57 +/- 0.11 and A(16O) = 7.04 +/- 0.14 are derived. We consider the striking fluorine overabundance in the framework of the nucleosynthetic processes thought to be responsible for the C-enhancement of CEMP stars and conclude that the atmosphere of HE 1305+0132 was polluted via mass transfer by a primary companion during its asymptotic giant branch phase. This is the first study of fluorine in a CEMP star, and it demonstrates that this rare nuclide can be a key diagnostic of nucleosynthetic processes in the early Galaxy.Comment: 13 pages, 3 figures; Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Measurement of Stochastic Entropy Production

    Full text link
    Using fluorescence spectroscopy we directly measure entropy production of a single two-level system realized experimentally as an optically driven defect center in diamond. We exploit a recent suggestion to define entropy on the level of a single stochastic trajectory (Seifert, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 95}, 040602 (2005)). Entropy production can then be split into one of the system itself and one of the surrounding medium. We demonstrate that the total entropy production obeys various exact relations for finite time trajectories.Comment: Phys. Rev. Lett., in pres

    PEPSI deep spectra. III. A chemical analysis of the ancient planet-host star Kepler-444

    Full text link
    We obtained an LBT/PEPSI spectrum with very high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the K0V host Kepler-444, which is known to host 5 sub-Earth size rocky planets. The spectrum has a resolution of R=250,000, a continuous wavelength coverage from 4230 to 9120A, and S/N between 150 and 550:1 (blue to red). We performed a detailed chemical analysis to determine the photospheric abundances of 18 chemical elements, in order to use the abundances to place constraints on the bulk composition of the five rocky planets. Our spectral analysis employs the equivalent width method for most of our spectral lines, but we used spectral synthesis to fit a small number of lines that require special care. In both cases, we derived our abundances using the MOOG spectral analysis package and Kurucz model atmospheres. We find no correlation between elemental abundance and condensation temperature among the refractory elements. In addition, using our spectroscopic stellar parameters and isochrone fitting, we find an age of 10+/-1.5 Gyr, which is consistent with the asteroseismic age of 11+/-1 Gyr. Finally, from the photospheric abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe, we estimate that the typical Fe-core mass fraction for the rocky planets in the Kepler-444 system is approximately 24 per cent. If our estimate of the Fe-core mass fraction is confirmed by more detailed modeling of the disk chemistry and simulations of planet formation and evolution in the Kepler-444 system, then this would suggest that rocky planets in more metal-poor and alpha-enhanced systems may tend to be less dense than their counterparts of comparable size in more metal-rich systems.Comment: in press, 11 pages, 3 figures, data available from pepsi.aip.d

    Metallicities of Planet Hosting Stars: A Sample of Giants and Subgiants

    Full text link
    This work presents a homogeneous derivation of atmospheric parameters and iron abundances for a sample of giant and subgiant stars which host giant planets, as well as a control sample of subgiant stars not known to host giant planets. The analysis is done using the same technique as for our previous analysis of a large sample of planet-hosting and control sample dwarf stars. A comparison between the distributions of [Fe/H] in planet-hosting main-sequence stars, subgiants, and giants within these samples finds that the main-sequence stars and subgiants have the same mean metallicity of \simeq +0.11 dex, while the giant sample is typically more metal poor, having an average metallicity of = -0.06 dex. The fact that the subgiants have the same average metallicities as the dwarfs indicates that significant accretion of solid metal-rich material onto the planet-hosting stars has not taken place, as such material would be diluted in the evolution from dwarf to subgiant. The lower metallicity found for the planet-hosting giant stars in comparison with the planet-hosting dwarfs and subgiants is interpreted as being related to the underlying stellar mass, with giants having larger masses and thus, on average larger-mass protoplanetary disks. In core accretion models of planet formation, larger disk masses can contain the critical amount of metals necessary to form giant planets even at lower metallicities.Comment: 38 pages, 7 figures, 4 tables, accepted for publication in Ap
    • …