86 research outputs found

    A Comparison Of Aerosol-Layer And Convective Boundary-Layer Structure Over A Mountain Range During Staaarte '97

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    The temporal evolution and spatial structure of the aerosol layer (AL) height as observed with an airborne downlooking lidar over the Swiss Alps were investigated with a three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model and a particle dispersion model. Convective boundary-layer (CBL) heights were derived from the mesoscale model output, and the behaviour of surface-released particles was investigated with the particle dispersion model. While a previous investigation, using data from the same field study, equated the observed AL height with the CBL height, the results of the current investigation indicate that there is a considerable difference between AL and CBL heights caused by mixing and transport processes between the CBL and the free atmosphere. CBL heights show a more terrain-following behaviour and are lower than AL heights. We argue that processes causing the difference between AL and CBL heights are common over mountainous terrain and that the AL height is a length scale that needs to be considered in air pollution studies in mountainous terrai

    The STARTWAVE atmospheric water database

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    International audienceThe STARTWAVE (STudies in Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Water Vapour Effects) project aims to investigate the role which water vapour plays in the climate system, and in particular its interaction with radiation. Within this framework, an ongoing water vapour database project was set up which comprises integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements made over the last ten years by ground-based microwave radiometers, Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and sun photometers located throughout Switzerland at altitudes between 330 and 3584 m. At Bern (46.95° N, 7.44° E) tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained on a regular basis and integrated liquid water, which is important for cloud characterisation, is also measured. Additional stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained by an airborne microwave radiometer which observes large parts of the northern hemisphere during yearly flight campaigns. The database allows us to validate the various water vapour measurement techniques. Comparisons between IWV measured by the Payerne radiosonde with that measured at Bern by two microwave radiometers, GPS and sun photometer showed instrument biases within ±0.5 mm. The bias in GPS relative to sun photometer over the 2001 to 2004 period was ?0.8 mm at Payerne (46.81° N, 6.94° E, 490 m), which lies in the Swiss plains north of the Alps, and +0.6 mm at Davos (46.81° N, 9.84° E, 1598 m), which is located within the Alps in the eastern part of Switzerland. At Locarno (46.18° N, 8.78° E, 366 m), which is located on the south side of the Alps, the bias is +1.9 mm. The sun photometer at Locarno was found to have a bias of ?2.2 mm (13% of the mean annual IWV) relative to the data from the closest radiosonde station at Milano. This result led to a yearly rotation of the sun photometer instruments between low and high altitude stations to improve the calibrations. In order to demonstrate the capabilites of the database for studying water vapour variations, we investigated a front which crossed Switzerland between 18 November 2004 and 19 November 2004. During the frontal passage, the GPS and microwave radiometers at Bern and Payerne showed an increase in IWV of between 7 and 9 mm. The GPS IWV measurements were corrected to a standard height of 500 m, using an empirically derived exponential relationship between IWV and altitude. A qualitative comparison was made between plots of the IWV distribution measured by the GPS and the 6.2 µm water vapour channel on the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite. Both showed that the moist air moved in from a northerly direction, although the MSG showed an increase in water vapour several hours before increases in IWV were detected by GPS or microwave radiometer. This is probably due to the fact that the satellite instrument is sensitive to an atmospheric layer at around 320 hPa, which makes a contribution of one percent or less to the IWV

    Quantification of topographic venting of boundary layer air to the free troposphere

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    International audienceNet vertical air mass export by thermally driven flows from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to the free troposphere (FT) above deep Alpine valleys was investigated. The vertical export of pollutants above mountainous terrain is presently poorly represented in global chemistry transport models (GCTMs) and needs to be quantified. Air mass budgets were calculated using aircraft observations obtained in deep Alpine valleys. The results show that on average 3 times the valley air mass is exported vertically per day under fair weather conditions. During daytime the type of valleys investigated in this study can act as an efficient "air pump" that transports pollutants upward. The slope wind system within the valley plays an important role in redistributing pollutants. Nitrogen oxide emissions in mountainous regions are efficiently injected into the FT. This could enhance their ozone (O3) production efficiency and thus influences tropospheric pollution budgets. Once lifted to the FT above the Alps pollutants are transported horizontally by the synoptic flow and are subject to European pollution export. Forward trajectory studies show that under fair weather conditions two major pathways for air masses above the Alps dominate. Air masses moving north are mixed throughout the whole tropospheric column and further transported eastward towards Asia. Air masses moving south descend within the subtropical high pressure system above the Mediterranean

    Clinical features, anaesthetic management and perioperative complications seen in three horses with pheochromocytoma

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    Three horses presenting with colic signs to the Equine Referral Hospital at The Royal Veterinary College underwent general anaesthesia between September 2013 and November 2017 for emergency exploratory laparotomy. No obvious cause for the colic signs was identified in two horses, while a haemoperitoneum was identified in the third. All horses were euthanased within 12 hours of surgery due to deteriorating haemodynamic instability and/or intractable pain. Postmortem examination revealed an adrenal mass in each case, confirmed to be a pheochromocytoma on histopathology. In retrospect, each horse had some hallmark characteristics consistent with a functional pheochromocytoma, including hyperglycaemia and hyperlactataemia. Extremely high packed cell volume (PCV) (>65 per cent) was also identified in two horses, with a high-normal PCV found in the haemoperitoneum case. Perioperative haemodynamic instability was predominantly characterised by episodes of intermittent hypertension and tachycardia

    Aerosol microphysical retrievals from precision filter radiometer direct solar radiation measurements and comparison with AERONET

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    Synchronized sun-photometric measurements from the AERONET-CIMEL (AErosol RObotic NETwork) and GAW-PFR (Global Atmospheric Watch–Precision Filter Radiometer) aerosol networks are used to compare retrievals of the aerosol optical depth (AOD), effective radius, and volume concentration during a high-temporal-resolution measurement campaign at the Athens site in the Mediterranean Basin from 14 to 22 July 2009. During this period, direct-sun AOD retrievals from both instruments exhibited small differences in the range 0.01–0.02. The AODs measured with CIMEL and PFR instruments were inverted to retrieve particle microphysical properties using the linear estimation (LE) technique. For low aerosol loads (AOD < 0.2), measurements of the effective radius by the PFR were found to be −20% to +30% different from CIMEL values for both direct-sun data and inversion data. At higher loads (AOD > 0.4), measurements of the effective radius by the PFR are consistently 20% lower than CIMEL for both direct sun and inversion data. Volume concentrations at low aerosol loads from the PFR are up to 80% higher than the CIMEL for direct-sun data but are up to 20% lower when derived from inversion data under these same conditions. At higher loads, the percentage difference in volume concentrations from the PFR and CIMEL is systematically negative, with inversion data predicting differences 30% lower than those obtained from direct-sun data. An assessment of the effect of errors in the AOD retrieval on the estimation of PFR bulk parameters was performed and demonstrates that it is possible to estimate the particle volume concentration and effective radius with an uncertainty < 65% when AOD < 0.2 and when input errors are as high as 10%

    Aerosol Remote Sensing in Polar Regions

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    Multi-year sets of ground-based sun-photometer measurements conducted at 12 Arctic sites and 9 Antarctic sites were examined to determine daily mean values of aerosol optical thickness tau(lambda) at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, from which best-fit values of ngstrm's exponent alpha were calculated. Analyzing these data, the monthly mean values of tau(0.50 micrometers) and alpha and the relative frequency histograms of the daily mean values of both parameters were determined for winter-spring and summer-autumn in the Arctic and for austral summer in Antarctica. The Arctic and Antarctic covariance plots of the seasonal median values of alpha versus tau(0.50 micrometers) showed: (i) a considerable increase in tau(0.50 micrometers) for the Arctic aerosol from summer to winter-spring, without marked changes in alpha; and (ii) a marked increase in tau(0.50 micrometer) passing from the Antarctic Plateau to coastal sites, whereas alpha decreased considerably due to the larger fraction of sea-salt aerosol. Good agreement was found when comparing ground-based sun-photometer measurements of tau(lambda) and alpha at Arctic and Antarctic coastal sites with Microtops measurements conducted during numerous AERONET/MAN cruises from 2006 to 2013 in three Arctic Ocean sectors and in coastal and off-shore regions of the Southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, and the Antarctic Peninsula. Lidar measurements were also examined to characterize vertical profiles of the aerosol backscattering coefficient measured throughout the year at Ny-lesund. Satellite-based MODIS, MISR, and AATSR retrievals of tau(lambda) over large parts of the oceanic polar regions during spring and summer were in close agreement with ship-borne and coastal ground-based sun-photometer measurements. An overview of the chemical composition of mode particles is also presented, based on in-situ measurements at Arctic and Antarctic sites. Fourteen log-normal aerosol number size-distributions were defined to represent the average features of nuclei, accumulation and coarse mode particles for Arctic haze, summer background aerosol, Asian dust and boreal forest fire smoke, and for various background austral summer aerosol types at coastal and high-altitude Antarctic sites. The main columnar aerosol optical characteristics were determined for all 14 particle modes, based on in-situ measurements of the scattering and absorption coefficients. Diurnally averaged direct aerosol-induced radiative forcing and efficiency were calculated for a set of multimodal aerosol extinction models, using various Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function models over vegetation-covered, oceanic and snow-covered surfaces. These gave a reliable measure of the pronounced effects of aerosols on the radiation balance of the surface-atmosphere system over polar regions

    A new approach to long-term reconstruction of the solar irradiance leads to large historical solar forcing

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    The variable Sun is the most likely candidate for natural forcing of past climate change on time scales of 50 to 1000 years. Evidence for this understanding is that the terrestrial climate correlates positively with solar activity. During the past 10,000 years, the Sun has experienced substantial variations in activity and there have been numerous attempts to reconstruct solar irradiance. While there is general agreement on how solar forcing varied during the last several hundred years --- all reconstructions are proportional to the solar activity --- there is scientific controversy on the magnitude of solar forcing. We present a reconstruction of the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance covering 130 nm--10 μ\mum from 1610 to the present with annual resolution and for the Holocene with 22-year resolution. We assume that the minimum state of the quiet Sun in time corresponds to the observed quietest area on the present Sun. Then we use available long-term proxies of the solar activity, which are 10^{10}Be isotope concentrations in ice cores and 22-year smoothed neutron monitor data, to interpolate between the present quiet Sun and the minimum state of the quiet Sun. This determines the long-term trend in the solar variability which is then superposed with the 11-year activity cycle calculated from the sunspot number. The time-dependent solar spectral irradiance from about 7000 BC to the present is then derived using a state-of-the-art radiation code. We derive a total and spectral solar irradiance that was substantially lower during the Maunder minimum than observed today. The difference is remarkably larger than other estimations published in the recent literature. The magnitude of the solar UV variability, which indirectly affects climate is also found to exceed previous estimates. We discuss in details the assumptions which leaded us to this conclusion.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in Astronomy&Astrophysic

    Results from the Fourth WMO Filter Radiometer Comparison for aerosol optical depth measurements

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    This study presents the results of the Fourth Filter Radiometer Comparison that was held in Davos, Switzerland, between 28 September and 16 October 2015. Thirty filter radiometers and spectroradiometers from 12 countries participated including reference instruments from global aerosol networks. The absolute differences of all instruments compared to the reference have been based on the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) criterion defined as follows: 95% of the measured data has to be within 0.005±0.001∕m (where m is the air mass). At least 24 out of 29 instruments achieved this goal at both 500 and 865nm, while 12 out of 17 and 13 out of 21 achieved this at 368 and 412nm, respectively. While searching for sources of differences among different instruments, it was found that all individual differences linked to Rayleigh, NO2, ozone, water vapor calculations and related optical depths and air mass calculations were smaller than 0.01 in aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 500 and 865nm. Different cloud-detecting algorithms used have been compared. Ångström exponent calculations showed relatively large differences among different instruments, partly because of the high calculation uncertainty of this parameter in low AOD conditions. The overall low deviations of these AOD results and the high accuracy of reference aerosol network instruments demonstrated a promising framework to achieve homogeneity, compatibility and harmonization among the different spectral AOD networks in the near future

    Properties of jet engine combustion particles during the partemis experiment: Microphysics and chemistry, Geophys

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    [1] The particles emitted from an aircraft engine combustor were investigated in the European project PartEmis. Measured aerosol properties were mass and number concentration, size distribution, mixing state, thermal stability of internally mixed particles, hygroscopicity, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation potential. The combustor operation conditions corresponded to modern and older engine gas path temperatures at cruise altitude, with fuel sulphur contents (FSC) of 50, 410, and 1270 mg g À1 . Operation conditions and FSC showed only a weak influence on the microphysical aerosol properties, except for hygroscopic and CCN properties. Particles of size D ! 30 nm were almost entirely internally mixed. Particles of sizes D &lt; 20 nm showed a considerable volume fraction of compounds that volatilise at 390 K (10 -15%) and 573 K (4 -10%), while respective fractions decreased to &lt;5% for particles of size D ! 50 nm

    Algometry to measure pain threshold in the horse's back - An in vivo and in vitro study

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    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide information on algometric transmission of pressure through the dorsal thoracolumbar tissues of the equine back. Using a commercially available algometer, measurements were carried out with six different tips (hemispheric and cylindrical surfaces, contact areas 0.5 cm2, 1 cm2, and 2 cm2). In nine live horses the threshold of pressure that lead to any reaction was documented. In postmortem specimens of five euthanized horses the transmission of algometer pressure onto a pressure sensor placed underneath the dorsal thoracolumbar tissues at the level of the ribs or the transverse lumbar processes respectively was measured. Results Algometer tips with a contact area of 1 cm2 led to widely similar results irrespective of the surface shape; these measurements also had the lowest variance. Contact areas of 0.5 cm2 resulted in a lower pressure threshold, and those of 2 cm2 resulted in a higher pressure threshold. The hemispheric shape of the contact area resulted in a higher pressure threshold, than the cylindrical contact area. Compared to the thoracic region, a significantly higher pressure threshold was found in the lumbar region in the live horses. This result corresponds to the increased tissue thickness in the lumbar region compared to the thoracic region, also documented as less pressure transmission in the lumbar region on the in vitro specimens. Conclusions Algometry is an easily practicable and well tolerated method to quantify pain but it is important to consider the many factors influencing the results obtained
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