1,279 research outputs found

    Reconstruction of interactions in the ProtoDUNE-SP detector with Pandora

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    The Pandora Software Development Kit and algorithm libraries provide pattern-recognition logic essential to the reconstruction of particle interactions in liquid argon time projection chamber detectors. Pandora is the primary event reconstruction software used at ProtoDUNE-SP, a prototype for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment far detector. ProtoDUNE-SP, located at CERN, is exposed to a charged-particle test beam. This paper gives an overview of the Pandora reconstruction algorithms and how they have been tailored for use at ProtoDUNE-SP. In complex events with numerous cosmic-ray and beam background particles, the simulated reconstruction and identification efficiency for triggered test-beam particles is above 80% for the majority of particle type and beam momentum combinations. Specifically, simulated 1 GeV/c charged pions and protons are correctly reconstructed and identified with efficiencies of 86.1 ± 0.6 % and 84.1 ± 0.6 %, respectively. The efficiencies measured for test-beam data are shown to be within 5% of those predicted by the simulation

    Sex-specific declines in cholinergic-targeting tRNA fragments in the nucleus accumbens in Alzheimer\u27s disease

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    INTRODUCTION: Females with Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD) suffer accelerated dementia and loss of cholinergic neurons compared to males, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Seeking causal contributors to both these phenomena, we pursued changes in transfer RNS (tRNA) fragments (tRFs) targeting cholinergic transcripts (CholinotRFs). METHODS: We analyzed small RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) data from the nucleus accumbens (NAc) brain region which is enriched in cholinergic neurons, compared to hypothalamic or cortical tissues from AD brains; and explored small RNA expression in neuronal cell lines undergoing cholinergic differentiation. RESULTS: NAc CholinotRFs of mitochondrial genome origin showed reduced levels that correlated with elevations in their predicted cholinergic-associated mRNA targets. Single-cell RNA seq from AD temporal cortices showed altered sex-specific levels of cholinergic transcripts in diverse cell types; inversely, human-originated neuroblastoma cells under cholinergic differentiation presented sex-specific CholinotRF elevations. DISCUSSION: Our findings support CholinotRFs contributions to cholinergic regulation, predicting their involvement in AD sex-specific cholinergic loss and dementia

    A Gaseous Argon-Based Near Detector to Enhance the Physics Capabilities of DUNE

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    This document presents the concept and physics case for a magnetized gaseous argon-based detector system (ND-GAr) for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) Near Detector. This detector system is required in order for DUNE to reach its full physics potential in the measurement of CP violation and in delivering precision measurements of oscillation parameters. In addition to its critical role in the long-baseline oscillation program, ND-GAr will extend the overall physics program of DUNE. The LBNF high-intensity proton beam will provide a large flux of neutrinos that is sampled by ND-GAr, enabling DUNE to discover new particles and search for new interactions and symmetries beyond those predicted in the Standard Model

    Low exposure long-baseline neutrino oscillation sensitivity of the DUNE experiment