1,009 research outputs found

    Possible pathways for <i>Candida auris</i> introduction into the environment.

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    Possible pathways for Candida auris introduction into the environment.</p

    Effects of Irrigation Regimes and Rice Varieties on Methane Emissions and Yield of Dry Season Rice in Bangladesh

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    Adoption of the right rice variety and water-saving irrigation method could reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in lowland rice cultivation. A study was conducted at the research farm of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh, in 2019 during the Boro (dry) season to determine the impacts of different rice varieties (BRRI dhan29, BRRI dhan47, BRRI dhan69, Binadhan-8, Binadhan-10, and Binadhan-17) on methane (CH4) emissions under two irrigation methods, i.e., alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and continuous flooding (CF). The treatments were laid out in a split-plot design, considering water regime as the main plots and rice variety as the sub-plots. The emission rates of CH4 were determined by collecting air samples using the closed chamber technique and measuring the concentrations using a gas chromatograph. CH4 emission rates varied with the growth and development of the rice varieties. The lowest cumulative CH4 emission rate was observed in Binadhan-17, particularly under AWD irrigation. Across the rice varieties, AWD irrigation significantly reduced the cumulative CH4 emissions by about 35% compared with CF. No significant variation in rice yield was observed between AWD (5.38 t ha−1) and CF (5.16 t ha−1). This study suggests that the cultivation of Binadhan-17 under AWD irrigation could be effective at reducing the carbon footprint of lowland rice fields

    Oral health status and treatment needs among obstructive sleep apnea patients in Jodhpur, Rajasthan

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    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder characterized by periodic and repetitive partial or complete collapse of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in reduced ventilation (hypopnea) or absent ventilation (apnea).Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 adult OSA patients attending hospitals of Jodhpur and the dental clinic in Vyas Dental College and Hospital in Jodhpur city. The sample consisted of 65.0% males and 35.0% females, belonging to 18 years ≥60 years of age with a mean age of 47.61 ± 8.53.Results: In our study, we have used AHI for the assessment of OSA, the major significant association (P = 0.001) was seen between AHI and periodontitis. The finding suggest that the prevalence of periodontitis is greater among patient with OSA with almost 39 patients with AHI value between 11to15 having loss of attachment between 4 mm ≥8 mm. Conclusion: Obstructive sleep apnea is acting as a significant risk factor for major Dental diseases. The study concludes that there was a significant association found between oral health status and OSA patients

    A bibliometric review of corporate environmental disclosure literature

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    Purpose The study aims to identify and discuss influential aspects of corporate environmental disclosure (CED) literature, including key streams, themes, authors, keywords, journals, affiliations and countries. This review also constructs agendas for future CED research. Design/methodology/approach Using a bibliometric review approach, the authors reviewed 560 articles on CED from 215 journals published between 1982 and 2020. Findings The authors' insights are three-fold. First, the authors identified three core streams of CED research: “legitimization of environmental hazards via environmental disclosures,” “the role of environmental accounting in achieving corporate environmental sustainability” and “integrating environmental social and governance (ESG) reporting into the global reporting initiatives (GRI) guidelines”. Second, the authors also deployed a thematic map that classifies CED research into four themes: niche themes (e.g. institutional theory and environmental management system), motor themes (e.g. stakeholder engagement), emerging/declining themes (e.g. legitimacy theory) and basic/transversal themes (e.g. voluntary CED, environmental reporting and corporate social responsibility). Third, the authors highlighted important CED authors, keywords, journals, articles, affiliations and countries. Research limitations/implications This study assists researchers, journal editors and consultants in the corporate sector to comprehensively understand various dimensions of CED research and practices and suggests potential emerging research areas. Although this paper appears to have been thoroughly conducted, using authors' keywords to identify themes was a key limitation. Thus, the authors call upon using a more comprehensive data mining technique that uses keywords in abstracts, titles and the whole body of papers and then identifies inclusive trends in CED literature. Originality/value The authors contribute to the extant accounting literature by investigating the organizational-level CED, both mandatory and voluntary, using a systematic and bibliometric literature review model to summarize the key research streams, themes, authors, journals, affiliations and countries. By doing so, the authors construct a future research agenda for CED literature

    Innovative date syrup processing with ohmic heating technology: Physiochemical characteristics, yield optimization, and sensory attributes

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    The present study aimed to investigate the application of the ohmic heating (OH) technique in the production of date syrup from the date fruit of the Sukkary variety at different electric field strengths (EFS) (9, 10, and 11 V/cm). The results were compared to the conventional heating method (CH). The response surface methodology was used to optimize yield. The results showed that the time to reach the boiling point of dates and water mixture using OH was less than the CH by 80% for extracting and 900% for evaporation. In addition, the productivity of date syrup using OH at EFS of 11 V/cm was higher than the CH by 86.11%. There is no significant effect between OH at EFS of 11 V/cm and CH in moisture content, refractive index, density, TSS, and viscosity. The optimum level of EFS was 11.5 V/cm, which gave a higher yield (64.93%). OH, save consumed power and cost. The OH gave the highest scores of sensory characteristics compared to CH. Total sugars, monosaccharides, and ketone monosaccharides were detected in the date syrup, and the result was positive, while the quintuple sugars and multiple sugars were negative for all treatments. The OH reduced the cost by 85.78% compared with CH

    Etiology of corneal blindness in patients attending a tertiary care center in Kashmir

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    PURPOSE: To study the etiology of corneal blindness in patients attending the cornea clinic of a tertiary care center of Kashmir. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study with prospective as well as retrospective recruitment of cases conducted over a period of 2 years. Patients with corneal blindness were included, and history regarding age, gender, laterality, residence, and occupation was taken. RESULTS: A total of 318 patients were studied with 151 (47.5%) males and 167 (52.5%) females; majority (48.8%) belonged to the age group of 31 to 50 years. 92.8% had unilateral and 7.2% had bilateral involvement, 57.2% belonged to rural and 42.8% to urban areas, and 61% were outdoor and 39% were indoor workers. The most common cause was infectious keratitis (57.54%) which included viral (25.8%), bacterial (23.27%), and fungal (8.5%). Bullous keratopathy accounted for 17.30% (aphakic 3.10% and pseudophakic 14.2%), followed by trauma 10.26% with mechanical trauma 6.29% and chemical trauma 3.46%. Advanced keratoconus accounted for 7.5% of cases and failed graft for 4.72%. Corneal dystrophies and degenerations accounted for 1.9% of cases. CONCLUSION: Majority of the causes of corneal blindness are preventable if addressed appropriately and timely with good health-care facilities at community level, education, awareness, and proper facilities, especially provision of protective tools and equipment at workplaces

    Reported isolation of common pathogenic <i>Candida</i> species from environmental samples.

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    Reported isolation of common pathogenic Candida species from environmental samples.</p

    Cumulative number of countries with reported detection of <i>Candida auris</i>.

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    Cumulative number of countries with reported detection of Candida auris.</p

    Analysis and characterization of opto-electronic properties of iron oxide (Fe2O3) with transition metals (Co, Ni) for the use in the photodetector application

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    There are several uses for ultraviolet photodetectors, including in the scientific, military, and industrial sectors. In this sense, UV photodetectors must have high responsiveness, be insensitive to visible light, and be inexpensive to produce. For this purpose, we report the development of Co and Ni based iron oxide nanoparticles via the cost effective low temperature sol–gel auto-combustion process. XRD study approves the cubic crystal structure of iron oxide (Fe2O3) with predominant orientation along (311) direction. A sharp and strong peak is obtained at 583 cm−1 and 594 cm−1 for both samples in FT-IR spectra assigned to metal oxide Fe–O network system which approves the formation of iron oxide. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals the presence of two A1g and five Eg phonon modes in the case of both samples. Absorption study exhibits the strong absorption peaks for the iron oxide sample doped with cobalt and nickel, while poor absorption was noticed from the pure iron oxide nanoparticles. The large and low energy band gap values are found to be 2.77 eV and 1.68 eV for pure Fe2O3 and cobalt and nickel doped Fe2O3 nanoparticles, respectively. Stone and cloud-like shape morphology was observed from SEM analysis. The EDX spectra reveal the presence of essential elements, like Fe and O in the case of pure iron oxide while Fe, O, Co and Ni in the case of transition metals doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy technique was recorded the luminescent properties which reveals the decrease in PL intensity that confirms the decline in electron–hole recombination. Therefore, I–V characterization analysis reveals that electrical conductivity increases with the addition of metals due to decrease in electron–hole recombination with the co-doping of metals. These modified opto-electronic properties of the developed Fe2O3 by metals co-doping make it suitable candidate for the use in photodetector application

    Environmental reservoirs of the drug-resistant pathogenic yeast Candida auris

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    Candia auris is an emerging human pathogenic yeast; yet, despite phenotypic attributes and genomic evidence suggesting that it probably emerged from a natural reservoir, we know nothing about the environmental phase of its life cycle and the transmission pathways associated with it. The thermotolerant characteristics of C. auris have been hypothesised to be an environmental adaptation to increasing temperatures due to global warming (which may have facilitated its ability to tolerate the mammalian thermal barrier that is considered a protective strategy for humans against colonisation by environmental fungi with pathogenic potential). Thus, C. auris may be the first human pathogenic fungus to have emerged as a result of climate change. In addition, the release of antifungal chemicals, such as azoles, into the environment (from both pharmaceutical and agricultural sources) is likely to be responsible for the environmental enrichment of resistant strains of C. auris; however, the survival and dissemination of C. auris in the natural environment is poorly understood. In this paper, we critically review the possible pathways through which C. auris can be introduced into the environment and evaluate the environmental characteristics that can influence its persistence and transmission in natural environments. Identifying potential environmental niches and reservoirs of C. auris and understanding its emergence against a backdrop of climate change and environmental pollution will be crucial for the development of effective epidemiological and environmental management responses
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