231 research outputs found

    Dietary nitrate supplementation for preventing and reducing the severity of winter infections, including COVID-19, in care homes (BEET-Winter)-a randomised placebo-controlled feasibility trial

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    PURPOSE: Infections cause considerable care home morbidity and mortality. Nitric oxide (NO) has broad-spectrum anti-viral, bacterial and yeast activity in vitro. We assessed the feasibility of supplementing dietary nitrate (NO substrate) intake in care home residents. METHODS: We performed a cluster-randomised placebo-controlled trial in UK residential and nursing care home residents and compared nitrate containing (400 mg) versus free (0 mg daily) beetroot juice given for 60 days. Outcomes comprised feasibility of recruitment, adherence, salivary and urinary nitrate, and ordinal infection/clinical events. RESULTS: Of 30 targeted care homes in late 2020, 16 expressed interest and only 6 participated. 49 residents were recruited (median 8 [interquartile range 7–12] per home), mean (standard deviation) age 82 (8) years, with proxy consent 41 (84%), advance directive for hospital non-admission 8 (16%) and ≥ 1 doses of COVID-19 vaccine 37 (82%). Background dietary nitrate was  50% of juice. Residents randomised to nitrate vs placebo had higher urinary nitrate levels, median 50 [18–175] v 18 [10–50] mg/L, difference 25 [0–90]. Data paucity precluded clinical between-group comparisons; the outcome distribution was as follows: no infection 32 (67%), uncomplicated infection 0, infection requiring healthcare support 11 (23%), all-cause hospitalisation 5 (10%), all-cause mortality 0. Urinary tract infections were most common. CONCLUSIONS: Recruiting UK care homes during the COVID-19 pandemic was partially successful. Supplemented dietary nitrate was tolerated and elevated urinary nitrate. Together, infections, hospitalisations and deaths occurred in 33% of residents over 60 days. A larger trial is now required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN51124684. Application date 7/12/2020; assignment date 13/1/2021. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s41999-022-00714-5

    Real-life Experience With Rituximab-CHOP Every 21 or 14 Days in Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma

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    Background/Aim: Primary mediastinal large Bcell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is an aggressive B-cell non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whose prognosis has greatly improved since the incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into current therapeutic regimens. Evidence, however, on the optimal time interval between consecutive chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) cycles is still scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy outcomes of the more commonly administered 3-weekly regimens to the biweekly ones in a PMLBCL patients' population, who were mostly treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every 21 days (R-CHOP-21) or R-CHOP-14. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied our cohort of consecutively treated PMLBCL patients, focusing on their treatment density, in order to determine possible differences in treatment outcomes. Results: CIT, in the form of both RCHOP- 21 as well as R-CHOP-14 (or similar regimens), is highly active in PMLBCL, with low rates of early treatment failure. In our cohort of patients, R-CHOP-14 did not result in a meaningful improvement of freedom from progression (FFP) or overall survival (OS). Conclusion: Both R-CHOP- 14 and R-CHOP-21 are probably equally effective in PMLBCL, yet further, prospective, randomized studies are warranted to clarify whether dose-dense regimens can be associated with better disease control and long-term results. © 2022 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved

    Real-life Experience With Rituximab-CHOP Every 21 or 14 Days in Primary Mediastinal Large B-cell Lymphoma

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    Background/Aim: Primary mediastinal large Bcell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is an aggressive B-cell non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), whose prognosis has greatly improved since the incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into current therapeutic regimens. Evidence, however, on the optimal time interval between consecutive chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) cycles is still scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy outcomes of the more commonly administered 3-weekly regimens to the biweekly ones in a PMLBCL patients' population, who were mostly treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone every 21 days (R-CHOP-21) or R-CHOP-14. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively studied our cohort of consecutively treated PMLBCL patients, focusing on their treatment density, in order to determine possible differences in treatment outcomes. Results: CIT, in the form of both RCHOP- 21 as well as R-CHOP-14 (or similar regimens), is highly active in PMLBCL, with low rates of early treatment failure. In our cohort of patients, R-CHOP-14 did not result in a meaningful improvement of freedom from progression (FFP) or overall survival (OS). Conclusion: Both R-CHOP- 14 and R-CHOP-21 are probably equally effective in PMLBCL, yet further, prospective, randomized studies are warranted to clarify whether dose-dense regimens can be associated with better disease control and long-term results. © 2022 International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved

    Procalcitonin to reduce long-term infection-associated adverse events in sepsis a randomized trial

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    Rationale: Although early antimicrobial discontinuation guided by procalcitonin (PCT) has shown decreased antibiotic consumption in lower respiratory tract infections, the outcomes in long-term sepsis sequelae remain unclear. Objectives: To investigate if PCT guidance may reduce the incidence of long-term infection-associated adverse events in sepsis. Methods: In this multicenter trial, 266 patients with sepsis (by Sepsis-3 definitions) with lower respiratory tract infections, acute pyelonephritis, or primary bloodstream infection were randomized (1:1) to receive either PCT-guided discontinuation of antimicrobials or standard of care. The discontinuation criterion was >80% reduction in PCT levels or any PCT <0.5 mg/L at Day 5 or later. The primary outcome was the rate of infection-associated adverse events at Day 180, a composite of the incidence of any new infection by Clostridioides difficile or multidrug-resistant organisms, or any death attributed to baseline C. difficile or multidrug-resistant organism infection. Secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality, length of antibiotic therapy, and cost of hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: The rate of infection-associated adverse events was 7.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8–13.1%; 9/125) versus 15.3% (95% CI, 10.1–22.4%; 20/131) (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.20–0.98; P = 0.045); 28-day mortality 15.2% (95% CI, 10–22.5%; 19/125) versus 28.2% (95% CI, 21.2–36.5%; 37/131) (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29–0.89; P = 0.02); and median length of antibiotic therapy 5 (range, 5–7) versus 10 (range, 7–15) days (P, 0.001) in the PCT and standard-of-care arms, respectively. The cost of hospitalization was also reduced in the PCT arm. Conclusions: In sepsis, PCT guidance was effective in reducing infection-associated adverse events, 28-day mortality, and cost of hospitalization. Copyright © 2021 by the American Thoracic Society

    Effect of anakinra on mortality in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis

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    Background: Anakinra might improve the prognosis of patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 (ie, patients requiring oxygen supplementation but not yet receiving organ support). We aimed to assess the effect of anakinra treatment on mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Methods: For this systematic review and individual patient-level meta-analysis, a systematic literature search was done on Dec 28, 2020, in Medline (PubMed), Cochrane, medRxiv, bioRxiv, and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases for randomised trials, comparative studies, and observational studies of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, comparing administration of anakinra with standard of care, or placebo, or both. The search was repeated on Jan 22, 2021. Individual patient-level data were requested from investigators and corresponding authors of eligible studies; if individual patient-level data were not available, published data were extracted from the original reports. The primary endpoint was mortality after 28 days and the secondary endpoint was safety (eg, the risk of secondary infections). This study is registered on PROSPERO (CRD42020221491). Findings: 209 articles were identified, of which 178 full-text articles fulfilled screening criteria and were assessed. Aggregate data on 1185 patients from nine studies were analysed, and individual patient-level data on 895 patients were provided from six of these studies. Eight studies were observational and one was a randomised controlled trial. Most studies used historical controls. In the individual patient-level meta-analysis, after adjusting for age, comorbidities, baseline ratio of the arterial partial oxygen pressure divided by the fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2), C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and lymphopenia, mortality was significantly lower in patients treated with anakinra (38 [11%] of 342) than in those receiving standard of care with or without placebo (137 [25%] of 553; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·32 [95% CI 0·20–0·51]). The mortality benefit was similar across subgroups regardless of comorbidities (ie, diabetes), ferritin concentrations, or the baseline PaO2/FiO2. In a subgroup analysis, anakinra was more effective in lowering mortality in patients with CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L (OR 0·28 [95% CI 0·17–0·47]). Anakinra showed a significant survival benefit when given without dexamethasone (OR 0·23 [95% CI 0·12–0·43]), but not with dexamethasone co-administration (0·72 [95% CI 0·37–1·41]). Anakinra was not associated with a significantly increased risk of secondary infections when compared with standard of care (OR 1·35 [95% CI 0·59–3·10]). Interpretation: Anakinra could be a safe, anti-inflammatory treatment option to reduce the mortality risk in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in the presence of signs of hyperinflammation such as CRP concentrations higher than 100 mg/L. Funding: Sobi. © 2021 Elsevier Lt

    An open label trial of anakinra to prevent respiratory failure in covid-19

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    Background It was studied if early suPAR-guided anakinra treatment can prevent severe respiratory failure (SRF) of COVID-19. Methods 130 patients with suPAR ≥6 ng/ml were assigned to subcutaneous anakinra 100mg once daily for 10 days. Primary outcome was SRF incidence by day 14 defined as any respiratory ratio below 150 mmHg necessitating mechanical or non-invasive ventilation. Main secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and inflammatory mediators; 28-day WHO-CPS was explored. Propensity-matched standard-of care comparators were studied. Results 22.3% with anakinra treatment and 59.2% comparators (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95%CI, 0.20-0.46) progressed into SRF; 30-day mortality was 11.5% and 22.3% respectively (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.97). Anakinra was associated with decrease in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, sCD163 and sIL2-R; IL-10/IL-6 ratio on day 7 was inversely associated with SOFA score; patients were allocated to less severe WHO-CPS strata. Conclusions Early suPAR-guided anakinra decreased SRF and restored the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04357366. © 2021, eLife Sciences Publications Ltd. All rights reserved

    Early treatment of COVID-19 with anakinra guided by soluble urokinase plasminogen receptor plasma levels: a double-blind, randomized controlled phase 3 trial

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    Early increase of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) serum levels is indicative of increased risk of progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to respiratory failure. The SAVE-MORE double-blind, randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of anakinra, an IL-1α/β inhibitor, in 594 patients with COVID-19 at risk of progressing to respiratory failure as identified by plasma suPAR ≥6 ng ml(-1), 85.9% (n = 510) of whom were receiving dexamethasone. At day 28, the adjusted proportional odds of having a worse clinical status (assessed by the 11-point World Health Organization Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS)) with anakinra, as compared to placebo, was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.26-0.50). The median WHO-CPS decrease on day 28 from baseline in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points, respectively (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, P < 0.0001); the respective median decrease of Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on day 7 from baseline was 0 and 1 points (OR = 0.63, P = 0.004). Twenty-eight-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio = 0.45, P = 0.045), and hospital stay was shorter

    Identification of Very Low-Risk Subgroups of Patients with Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma Treated with R-CHOP

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    Background: R-CHOP can cure approximately 75% of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL), but prognostic factors have not been sufficiently evaluated yet. R-da- EPOCH is potentially more effective but also more toxic than R-CHOP. Reliable prognostic classification is needed to guide treatment decisions. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the impact of clinical prognostic factors on the outcome of 332 PMLBCL patients ≤65 years treated with R-CHOP ± radiotherapy in a multicenter setting in Greece and Cyprus. Results: With a median follow-up of 69 months, 5-year freedom from progression (FFP) was 78% and 5-year lymphoma specific survival (LSS) was 89%. On multivariate analysis, extranodal involvement (E/IV) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ≥2 times upper limit of normal (model A) were significantly associated with FFP; E/IV and bulky disease (model B) were associated with LSS. Both models performed better than the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the age-adjusted IPI by Harrel's C rank parameter and Akaike information criterion. Both models A and B defined high-risk subgroups (13%–27% of patients [pts]) with approximately 19%–23% lymphoma-related mortality. They also defined subgroups composing approximately one-fourth or one-half of the patients, with 11% risk of failure and only 1% or 4% 5-year lymphoma-related mortality. Conclusion: The combination of E/IV with either bulky disease or LDH ≥2 times upper limit of normal defined high-risk but not very-high-risk subgroups. More importantly, their absence defined subgroups comprising approximately one-fourth or one-half of the pts, with 11% risk of failure and minimal lymphoma-related mortality, who may not need more intensive treatment such as R-da-EPOCH. Implications for Practice: By analyzing the impact of baseline clinical characteristics on outcomes of a large cohort of patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma homogeneously treated with R-CHOP with or without radiotherapy, we developed novel prognostic indices which can aid in deciding which patients can be adequately treated with R-CHOP and do not need more intensive regimens such as R-da-EPOCH. The new indices consist of objectively determined characteristics (extranodal disease or stage IV, bulky disease, and markedly elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase), which are readily available from standard initial staging procedures and offer better discrimination compared with established risk scores (International Prognostic Index [IPI] and age-adjusted IPI). © 2021 AlphaMed Pres

    Author Correction: Early treatment of COVID-19 with anakinra guided by soluble urokinase plasminogen receptor plasma levels: a double-blind, randomized controlled phase 3 trial (Nature Medicine, (2021), 27, 10, (1752-1760), 10.1038/s41591-021-01499-z)

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    In the version of this Article initially published, there was an error in the author affiliations. Specifically, affiliation 27, corresponding to author Carlo Selmi, has been corrected from “Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy” to read: “Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy &amp; IRCCS Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy.” The change has been made to the online version of the Article. © The Author(s) 2021

    The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is described. The detector operates at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It was conceived to study proton-proton (and lead-lead) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV (5.5 TeV nucleon-nucleon) and at luminosities up to 10(34)cm(-2)s(-1) (10(27)cm(-2)s(-1)). At the core of the CMS detector sits a high-magnetic-field and large-bore superconducting solenoid surrounding an all-silicon pixel and strip tracker, a lead-tungstate scintillating-crystals electromagnetic calorimeter, and a brass-scintillator sampling hadron calorimeter. The iron yoke of the flux-return is instrumented with four stations of muon detectors covering most of the 4 pi solid angle. Forward sampling calorimeters extend the pseudo-rapidity coverage to high values (vertical bar eta vertical bar <= 5) assuring very good hermeticity. The overall dimensions of the CMS detector are a length of 21.6 m, a diameter of 14.6 m and a total weight of 12500 t
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