1,004 research outputs found

    GW190425: Pan-STARRS and ATLAS coverage of the skymap and limits on optical emission associated with FRB 20190425A

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    GW190425 is the second of two binary neutron star (BNS) merger events to be significantly detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave (GW) Observatory (LIGO), Virgo and the Kamioka Gravitational Wave (KAGRA) detector network. With a detection only in LIGO Livingston, the skymap containing the source was large and no plausible electromagnetic counterpart was found in real-time searching in 2019. Here, we summarize Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System (ATLAS) and Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) wide-field optical coverage of the skymap beginning within 1 and 3 h, respectively, of the GW190425 merger time. More recently, a potential coincidence between GW190425 and a fast radio burst FRB 20190425A has been suggested, given their spatial and temporal coincidences. The smaller sky localization area of FRB 20190425A and its dispersion measure led to the identification of a likely host galaxy, UGC 10667 at a distance of 141 ± 10 Mpc. Our optical imaging covered the galaxy 6.0 h after GW190425 was detected and 3.5 h after the FRB 20190425A. No optical emission was detected and further imaging at +1.2 and +13.2 d also revealed no emission. If the FRB 20190425A and GW190425 association were real, we highlight our limits on kilonova emission from a BNS merger in UGC 10667. The model for producing FRB 20190425A from a BNS merger involves a supramassive magnetized neutron star spinning down by dipole emission on the time-scale of hours. We show that magnetar-enhanced kilonova emission is ruled out by optical upper limits. The lack of detected optical emission from a kilonova in UGC 10667 disfavours, but does not disprove, the FRB–GW link for this source

    XMM-Newton-discovered Fast X-ray Transients: host galaxies and limits on contemporaneous detections of optical counterparts

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    Extragalactic fast X-ray transients (FXTs) are a class of soft (0.3–10 keV) X-ray transients lasting a few hundred seconds to several hours. Several progenitor mechanisms have been suggested to produce FXTs, including supernova shock breakouts, binary neutron star mergers, or tidal disruptions involving an intermediate-mass black hole and a white dwarf. We present detailed host studies, including spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of seven XMM-Newton-discovered FXTs. The candidate hosts lie at redshifts 0.0928 <z < 0.645 implying peak X-ray luminosities of 1043 erg s−1<LX < 1045 erg s−1 and physical offsets of 1 kpc < rproj < 22 kpc. These observations increase the number of FXTs with a spectroscopic redshift measurement by a factor of 2, although we note that one event is re-identified as a Galactic flare star. We infer host star formation rates and stellar masses by fitting the combined spectroscopic and archival photometric data. We also report on a contemporaneous optical counterpart search to the FXTs in Pan-STARRS and ATLAS by performing forced photometry at the position of the FXTs. We do not find any counterpart in our search. Given our constraints, including peak X-ray luminosities, optical limits, and host properties, we find that XRT 110 621 is consistent with an supernova shock breakout (SN SBO) event. Spectroscopic redshifts of likely host galaxies for four events imply peak X-ray luminosities that are too high to be consistent with SN SBOs, but we are unable to discard either the binary neutron star or white dwarf–intermediate-mass black hole tidal disruption event scenarios for these FXTs

    SN 2023ixf in Messier 101: a variable red supergiant as the progenitor candidate to a type II supernova

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    We present pre-explosion optical and infrared (IR) imaging at the site of the type II supernova (SN II) 2023ixf in Messier 101 at 6.9 Mpc. We astrometrically registered a ground-based image of SN 2023ixf to archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer), and ground-based near-IR images. A single point source is detected at a position consistent with the SN at wavelengths ranging from HST RR-band to Spitzer 4.5 μ\mum. Fitting to blackbody and red supergiant (RSG) spectral-energy distributions (SEDs), we find that the source is anomalously cool with a significant mid-IR excess. We interpret this SED as reprocessed emission in a 8600 RR_{\odot} circumstellar shell of dusty material with a mass \sim5×105M\times10^{-5} M_{\odot} surrounding a log(L/L)=4.74±0.07\log(L/L_{\odot})=4.74\pm0.07 and Teff=3920+200160T_{\rm eff}=3920\substack{+200\\-160} K RSG. This luminosity is consistent with RSG models of initial mass 11 MM_{\odot}, depending on assumptions of rotation and overshooting. In addition, the counterpart was significantly variable in pre-explosion Spitzer 3.6 μ\mum and 4.5 μ\mum imaging, exhibiting \sim70% variability in both bands correlated across 9 yr and 29 epochs of imaging. The variations appear to have a timescale of 2.8 yr, which is consistent with κ\kappa-mechanism pulsations observed in RSGs, albeit with a much larger amplitude than RSGs such as α\alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse).Comment: 14 pages, 5 figures, submitted to ApJL, comments welcom

    Time-varying double-peaked emission lines following the sudden ignition of the dormant galactic nucleus AT2017bcc

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    We present a pan-chromatic study of AT2017bcc, a nuclear transient that was discovered in 2017 within the skymap of a reported burst-like gravitational wave candidate, G274296. It was initially classified as a superluminous supernova, and then reclassified as a candidate tidal disruption event. Its optical light curve has since shown ongoing variability with a structure function consistent with that of an active galactic nucleus, however earlier data shows no variability for at least 10 years prior to the outburst in 2017. The spectrum shows complex profiles in the broad Balmer lines: a central component with a broad blue wing, and a boxy component with time-variable blue and red shoulders. The Hα\alpha emission profile is well modelled using a circular accretion disc component, and a blue-shifted double Gaussian which may indicate a partially obscured outflow. Weak narrow lines, together with the previously flat light curve, suggest that this object represents a dormant galactic nucleus which has recently been re-activated. Our time-series modelling of the Balmer lines suggests that this is connected to a disturbance in the disc morphology, and we speculate this could involve a sudden violent event such as a tidal disruption event involving the central supermassive black hole. Although we find that the redshifts of AT2017bcc (z=0.13z=0.13) and G274296 (z>0.42z>0.42) are inconsistent, this event adds to the growing diversity of both nuclear transients and multi-messenger contaminants.Comment: Submitted to MNRA

    Hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey

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    Funding: The UCSC group is supported in part by NSF grant AST-1518052, the Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation, and from fellowships from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to R.J.F. S.J.S. acknowledges funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013)/ERC Grant agreement no [291222] and STFC grants ST/I001123/1 and ST/L000709/1.We present light curves and classification spectra of 17 hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) from the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS). Our sample contains all objects from the PS1 MDS sample with spectroscopic classification that are similar to either of the prototypes SN 2005ap or SN 2007bi, without an explicit limit on luminosity. With a redshift range 0.3< z< 1.6, PS1 MDS is the first SLSN sample primarily probing the high-redshift population; our multifilter PS1 light curves probe the rest-frame UV emission, and hence the peak of the spectral energy distribution. We measure the temperature evolution and construct bolometric light curves, and find peak luminosities of (0.5-5)× 1044 erg s-1 and lower limits on the total radiated energies of (0.3-2)× 1051 erg. The light curve shapes are diverse, with both rise and decline times spanning a factor of ∼5 and several examples of double-peaked light curves. When correcting for the flux-limited nature of our survey, we find a median peak luminosity at 4000 Å of M4000=-21.1 mag and a spread of σ =0.7 mag.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    SN 2022jli: A Type Ic Supernova with periodic modulation of its light curve and an unusually long rise

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    We present multiwavelength photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2022jli, an unprecedented Type Ic supernova discovered in the galaxy NGC 157 at a distance of ≈ 23 Mpc. The multiband light curves reveal many remarkable characteristics. Peaking at a magnitude of g = 15.11 ± 0.02, the high-cadence photometry reveals periodic undulations of 12.5 ± 0.2 days superimposed on the 200-day supernova decline. This periodicity is observed in the light curves from nine separate filter and instrument configurations with peak-to-peak amplitudes of ≃ 0.1 mag. This is the first time that repeated periodic oscillations, over many cycles, have been detected in a supernova light curve. SN 2022jli also displays an extreme early excess that fades over ≈25 days, followed by a rise to a peak luminosity of L opt = 1042.1 erg s−1. Although the exact explosion epoch is not constrained by data, the time from explosion to maximum light is ≳ 59 days. The luminosity can be explained by a large ejecta mass (M ej ≈ 12 ± 6 M ⊙) powered by 56Ni, but we find it difficult to quantitatively model the early excess with circumstellar interaction and cooling. Collision between the supernova ejecta and a binary companion is a possible source of this emission. We discuss the origin of the periodic variability in the light curve, including interaction of the SN ejecta with nested shells of circumstellar matter and neutron stars colliding with binary companions

    JWST detection of heavy neutron capture elements in a compact object merger

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    International audienceThe mergers of binary compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes are of central interest to several areas of astrophysics, including as the progenitors of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), sources of high-frequency gravitational waves and likely production sites for heavy element nucleosynthesis via rapid neutron capture (the r-process). These heavy elements include some of great geophysical, biological and cultural importance, such as thorium, iodine and gold. Here we present observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst GRB 230307A. We show that GRB 230307A belongs to the class of long-duration gamma-ray bursts associated with compact object mergers, and contains a kilonova similar to AT2017gfo, associated with the gravitational-wave merger GW170817. We obtained James Webb Space Telescope mid-infrared (mid-IR) imaging and spectroscopy 29 and 61 days after the burst. The spectroscopy shows an emission line at 2.15 microns which we interpret as tellurium (atomic mass A=130), and a very red source, emitting most of its light in the mid-IR due to the production of lanthanides. These observations demonstrate that nucleosynthesis in GRBs can create r-process elements across a broad atomic mass range and play a central role in heavy element nucleosynthesis across the Universe

    The Optical Light Curve of GRB 221009A: The Afterglow and the Emerging Supernova

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    We present extensive optical photometry of the afterglow of GRB 221009A. Our data cover 0.9–59.9 days from the time of Swift and Fermi gamma-ray burst (GRB) detections. Photometry in rizy -band filters was collected primarily with Pan-STARRS and supplemented by multiple 1–4 m imaging facilities. We analyzed the Swift X-ray data of the afterglow and found a single decline rate power law f ( t ) ∝ t ^−1.556±0.002 best describes the light curve. In addition to the high foreground Milky Way dust extinction along this line of sight, the data favor additional extinction to consistently model the optical to X-ray flux with optically thin synchrotron emission. We fit the X-ray-derived power law to the optical light curve and find good agreement with the measured data up to 5−6 days. Thereafter we find a flux excess in the riy bands that peaks in the observer frame at ∼20 days. This excess shares similar light-curve profiles to the Type Ic broad-lined supernovae SN 2016jca and SN 2017iuk once corrected for the GRB redshift of z = 0.151 and arbitrarily scaled. This may be representative of an SN emerging from the declining afterglow. We measure rest-frame absolute peak AB magnitudes of M _g = −19.8 ± 0.6 and M _r = − 19.4 ± 0.3 and M _z = −20.1 ± 0.3. If this is an SN component, then Bayesian modeling of the excess flux would imply explosion parameters of Mej=7.11.7+2.4{M}_{\mathrm{ej}}={7.1}_{-1.7}^{+2.4} M _⊙ , MNi=1.00.4+0.6{M}_{\mathrm{Ni}}={1.0}_{-0.4}^{+0.6} M _⊙ , and vej=33,9005700+5900{v}_{\mathrm{ej}}={{\rm{33,900}}}_{-5700}^{+5900} km s ^−1 , for the ejecta mass, nickel mass, and ejecta velocity respectively, inferring an explosion energy of E _kin ≃ 2.6–9.0 × 10 ^52 erg

    Unprecedented early flux excess in the hybrid 02es-like type Ia supernova 2022ywc indicates interaction with circumstellar material

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    We present optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 02es-like type Ia supernova (SN) 2022ywc. The transient occurred in the outskirts of an elliptical host galaxy and showed a striking double-peaked light curve with an early excess feature detected in the ATLAS orange and cyan bands. The early excess is remarkably luminous with an absolute magnitude ∼ − 19, comparable in luminosity to the subsequent radioactively driven second peak. The spectra resemble the hybrid 02es-like SN 2016jhr, which is considered to be a helium shell detonation candidate. We investigate different physical mechanisms that could power such a prominent early excess and rule out massive helium shell detonation, surface 56Ni distribution, and ejecta–companion interaction. We conclude that SN ejecta interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) is the most viable scenario. Semianalytical modeling with MOSFiT indicates that SN ejecta interacting with ∼0.05 M ⊙ of CSM at a distance of ∼1014 cm can explain the extraordinary light curve. A double-degenerate scenario may explain the origin of the CSM, by tidally stripped material from either the secondary white dwarf or disk-originated matter launched along polar axes following the disruption and accretion of the secondary white dwarf. A nonspherical CSM configuration could suggest that a small fraction of 02es-like events viewed along a favorable line of sight may be expected to display a very conspicuous early excess like SN 2022ywc
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