21,087 research outputs found

    Coastal greening of grey infrastructure: an update on the state-of-the-art

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    In the marine environment, greening of grey infrastructure (GGI) is a rapidly growing field that attempts to encourage native marine life to colonize marine artificial structures to enhance biodiversity, thereby promoting ecosystem functioning and hence service provision. By designing multifunctional sea defences, breakwaters, port complexes and off-shore renewable energy installations, these structures can yield myriad environmental benefits, in particular, addressing UN SDG 14: Life below water. Whilst GGI has shown great promise and there is a growing evidence base, there remain many criticisms and knowledge gaps, and some feel that there is scope for GGI to be abused by developers to facilitate harmful development. Given the surge of research in this field in recent years, we have reviewed the literature to provide an update update on the state-of-the-art of the field in relation to the many criticisms and identify remaining knowledge gaps. Despite the rapid and significant advances made in this field, there is currently a lack of science and practice outside of academic sectors in the developed world, and there is a collective need for schemes that encourage intersectoral and trans-sectoral research, knowledge exchange, and capacity building to optimize GGI in the pursuit of contributing to sustainable development

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science: A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

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    International audienceEffectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    First measurement of the neutron-emission probability with a surrogate reaction in inverse kinematics at a heavy-ion storage ring

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    International audienceNeutron-induced reaction cross sections of short-lived nuclei are imperative to understand the origin of heavy elements in stellar nucleosynthesis and for societal applications, but their measurement is extremely complicated due to the radioactivity of the targets involved. One way of overcoming this issue is to combine surrogate reactions with the unique possibilities offered by heavy-ion storage rings. In this work, we describe the first surrogate-reaction experiment in inverse kinematics, which we successfully conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) of the GSI/FAIR facility, using the 208^{208}Pb(p,p') reaction as a surrogate for neutron capture on 207^{207}Pb. Thanks to the outstanding detection efficiencies possible at the ESR, we were able to measure for the first time the neutron-emission probability as a function of the excitation energy of 208^{208}Pb. We demonstrate the strong connection between this probability and the neutron-induced radiative capture cross section of 207^{207}Pb, and provide reliable results for this cross section at neutron energies for which no experimental data exist

    Addressing climate change with behavioral science::A global intervention tournament in 63 countries

    No full text
    Effectively reducing climate change requires marked, global behavior change. However, it is unclear which strategies are most likely to motivate people to change their climate beliefs and behaviors. Here, we tested 11 expert-crowdsourced interventions on four climate mitigation outcomes: beliefs, policy support, information sharing intention, and an effortful tree-planting behavioral task. Across 59,440 participants from 63 countries, the interventions‚Äô effectiveness was small, largely limited to nonclimate skeptics, and differed across outcomes: Beliefs were strengthened mostly by decreasing psychological distance (by 2.3%), policy support by writing a letter to a future-generation member (2.6%), information sharing by negative emotion induction (12.1%), and no intervention increased the more effortful behavior‚ÄĒseveral interventions even reduced tree planting. Last, the effects of each intervention differed depending on people‚Äôs initial climate beliefs. These findings suggest that the impact of behavioral climate interventions varies across audiences and target behaviors

    Verification of molecular subtyping of bladder cancer in the GUSTO clinical trial

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    The GUSTO clinical trial (Gene expression subtypes of Urothelial carcinoma: Stratified Treatment and Oncological outcomes) uses molecular subtypes to guide neoadjuvant therapies in participants with muscle‚Äźinvasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Before commencing the GUSTO trial, we needed to determine the reliability of a commercial subtyping platform (Decipher Bladder; Veracyte) when performed in an external trial laboratory as this has not been done previously. Here, we report our pre‚Äźtrial verification of the TCGA molecular subtyping model using gene expression profiling. Formalin‚Äźfixed paraffin‚Äźembedded tissue blocks of MIBC were used for gene expression subtyping by gene expression microarrays. Intra‚Äź and inter‚Äźlaboratory technical reproducibilities, together with quality control of laboratory and bioinformatics processes, were assessed. Eighteen samples underwent analysis. RNA of sufficient quality and quantity was successfully extracted from all samples. All subtypes were represented in the cohort. Each sample was subtyped twice in our laboratory and once in a separate reference laboratory. No clinically significant discordance in subtype occurred between intra‚Äź or inter‚Äźlaboratory replicates. Examination of sample histopathology showed variability of morphological appearances within and between subtypes. Overall, these results show that molecular subtyping by gene expression profiling is reproducible, robust and suitable for use in the GUSTO clinical trial

    Measurement of the Isolated Nuclear Two-Photon Decay in 72Ge^{72}\mathrm{Ge}

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    International audienceThe nuclear two-photon or double-gamma (2ő≥2\gamma) decay is a second-order electromagnetic process whereby a nucleus in an excited state emits two gamma rays simultaneously. To be able to directly measure the 2ő≥2\gamma decay rate in the low-energy regime below the electron-positron pair-creation threshold, we combined the isochronous mode of a storage ring with Schottky resonant cavities. The newly developed technique can be applied to isomers with excitation energies down to ‚ąľ100\sim100 keV and half-lives as short as ‚ąľ10\sim10 ms. The half-life for the 2ő≥2\gamma decay of the first-excited 0+0^+ state in bare 72Ge^{72}\mathrm{Ge} ions was determined to be 23.9(6)23.9\left(6\right) ms, which strongly deviates from expectations

    First measurement of the neutron-emission probability with a surrogate reaction in inverse kinematics at a heavy-ion storage ring

    No full text
    International audienceNeutron-induced reaction cross sections of short-lived nuclei are imperative to understand the origin of heavy elements in stellar nucleosynthesis and for societal applications, but their measurement is extremely complicated due to the radioactivity of the targets involved. One way of overcoming this issue is to combine surrogate reactions with the unique possibilities offered by heavy-ion storage rings. In this work, we describe the first surrogate-reaction experiment in inverse kinematics, which we successfully conducted at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) of the GSI/FAIR facility, using the 208^{208}Pb(p,p') reaction as a surrogate for neutron capture on 207^{207}Pb. Thanks to the outstanding detection efficiencies possible at the ESR, we were able to measure for the first time the neutron-emission probability as a function of the excitation energy of 208^{208}Pb. We demonstrate the strong connection between this probability and the neutron-induced radiative capture cross section of 207^{207}Pb, and provide reliable results for this cross section at neutron energies for which no experimental data exist

    Accelarated immune ageing is associated with COVID-19 disease severity

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    Background The striking increase in COVID-19 severity in older adults provides a clear example of immunesenescence, the age-related remodelling of the immune system. To better characterise the association between convalescent immunesenescence and acute disease severity, we determined the immune phenotype of COVID-19 survivors and non-infected controls. Results We performed detailed immune phenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 103 COVID-19 survivors 3‚Äď5 months post recovery who were classified as having had severe (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ56; age 53.12‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ11.30 years), moderate (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ32; age 52.28‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ11.43 years) or mild (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ15; age 49.67‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ7.30 years) disease and compared with age and sex-matched healthy adults (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ59; age 50.49‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ10.68 years). We assessed a broad range of immune cell phenotypes to generate a composite score, IMM-AGE, to determine the degree of immune senescence. We found increased immunesenescence features in severe COVID-19 survivors compared to controls including: a reduced frequency and number of na√Įve CD4 and CD8 T cells (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001); increased frequency of EMRA CD4 (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.003) and CD8 T cells (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001); a higher frequency (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001) and absolute numbers (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) of CD28‚ąíve CD57+ve senescent CD4 and CD8 T cells; higher frequency (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.003) and absolute numbers (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.02) of PD-1 expressing exhausted CD8 T cells; a two-fold increase in Th17 polarisation (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001); higher frequency of memory B cells (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) and increased frequency (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.0001) and numbers (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001) of CD57+ve senescent NK cells. As a result, the IMM-AGE score was significantly higher in severe COVID-19 survivors than in controls (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001). Few differences were seen for those with moderate disease and none for mild disease. Regression analysis revealed the only pre-existing variable influencing the IMM-AGE score was South Asian ethnicity ( = 0.174, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.043), with a major influence being disease severity ( = 0.188, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.01). Conclusions Our analyses reveal a state of enhanced immune ageing in survivors of severe COVID-19 and suggest this could be related to SARS-Cov-2 infection. Our data support the rationale for trials of anti-immune ageing interventions for improving clinical outcomes in these patients with severe disease
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