1,859 research outputs found

    Excellent Abstract Elementary Classes are tame

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    The assumption that an AEC is tame is a powerful assumption permitting development of stability theory for AECs with the amalgamation property. Lately several upward categoricity theorems were discovered where tameness replaces strong set-theoretic assumptions. We present in this article two sufficient conditions for tameness, both in form of strong amalgamation properties that occur in nature. One of them was used recently to prove that several Hrushovski classes are tame. This is done by introducing the property of weak (μ,n)(\mu,n)-uniqueness which makes sense for all AECs (unlike Shelah's original property) and derive it from the assumption that weak (\LS(\K),n)-uniqueness, (\LS(\K),n)-symmetry and (\LS(\K),n)-existence properties hold for all n<ωn<\omega. The conjunction of these three properties we call \emph{excellence}, unlike \cite{Sh 87b} we do not require the very strong (\LS(\K),n)-uniqueness, nor we assume that the members of \K are atomic models of a countable first order theory. We also work in a more general context than Shelah's good frames.Comment: 26 page

    Brain Differently Changes Its Algorithms in Parallel Processing of Visual Information

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    Feedback from the visual cortex (Vl) to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) in macaque monkey increase contrast gain of LGN neurons for black and white (B&W) and for color (C) stimuli. LGN parvocellular cells responses to B&W gratings are enhanced by feedback multiplicatively and in contrast independent manner. However, in magnocellular neurons corticofugal pathways enhance cells responses in a contrast~dependent non-linear manner. For C stimuli cortical feedback enhances parvocellular neurons responses in a very strong contrast-dependent manner. Based on these results [13] we propose a model which includes excitatory and inhibitory effects on cells activity (shunting equations) in retina and LGN while taking into account the anatomy of cortical feedback connections. The main mechanisms related to different algorithms of the data processing in the visual brain are differences in feedback properties from Vl to parvocellular (PC) and to magnocellular (MC) neurons. Descending pathways from Vl change differently receptive field (RF) structure of PC and MC cells. For B&W stimuli, in PC cells feedback changes gain similarly in the RF center and in the RF surround, leaving PC RF structure invariant. However, feedback influence MC cells in two ways: directly and through LGN interneurons, which together changes gain and sizes of their RF center differently than gain and size of the RF surround. For C stimuli PC cells operate like MC cells for B&W. The first mechanism extracts from the stimulus an important features in a independent way from other stimulus parameters, whereas the second channel changes its tuning properties as a function of other stimulus attributes like contrast and/or spatial extension. The model suggests novel idea about the possible functional role of PC and MC pathways

    Recognition of 3-D Objects from Multiple 2-D Views by a Self-Organizing Neural Architecture

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    The recognition of 3-D objects from sequences of their 2-D views is modeled by a neural architecture, called VIEWNET that uses View Information Encoded With NETworks. VIEWNET illustrates how several types of noise and varialbility in image data can be progressively removed while incornplcte image features are restored and invariant features are discovered using an appropriately designed cascade of processing stages. VIEWNET first processes 2-D views of 3-D objects using the CORT-X 2 filter, which discounts the illuminant, regularizes and completes figural boundaries, and removes noise from the images. Boundary regularization and cornpletion are achieved by the same mechanisms that suppress image noise. A log-polar transform is taken with respect to the centroid of the resulting figure and then re-centered to achieve 2-D scale and rotation invariance. The invariant images are coarse coded to further reduce noise, reduce foreshortening effects, and increase generalization. These compressed codes are input into a supervised learning system based on the fuzzy ARTMAP algorithm. Recognition categories of 2-D views are learned before evidence from sequences of 2-D view categories is accumulated to improve object recognition. Recognition is studied with noisy and clean images using slow and fast learning. VIEWNET is demonstrated on an MIT Lincoln Laboratory database of 2-D views of jet aircraft with and without additive noise. A recognition rate of 90% is achieved with one 2-D view category and of 98.5% correct with three 2-D view categories.National Science Foundation (IRI 90-24877); Office of Naval Research (N00014-91-J-1309, N00014-91-J-4100, N00014-92-J-0499); Air Force Office of Scientific Research (F9620-92-J-0499, 90-0083

    Are Muslims the New Catholics? Europe’s Headscarf Laws in Comparative Historical Perspective

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    In this paper a biologically-inspired model for partly occluded patterns is proposed. The model is based on the hypothesis that in human visual system occluding patterns play a key role in recognition as well as in reconstructing internal representation for a pattern’s occluding parts. The proposed model is realized with a bidirectional hierarchical neural network. In this network top-down cues, generated by direct connections from the lower to higher levels of hierarchy, interact with the bottom-up information, generated from the un-occluded parts, to recognize occluded patterns. Moreover, positional cues of the occluded as well as occluding patterns, that are computed separately but in the same network, modulate the top-down and bottom-up processing to reconstruct the occluded patterns. Simulation results support the presented hypothesis as well as effectiveness of the model in providing a solution to recognition of occluded patterns. The behavior of the model is in accordance to the known human behavior on the occluded patterns

    Tree indiscernibilities, revisited

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    We give definitions that distinguish between two notions of indiscernibility for a set \{a_\eta \mid \eta \in \W\} that saw original use in \cite{sh90}, which we name \textit{\s-} and \textit{\n-indiscernibility}. Using these definitions and detailed proofs, we prove \s- and \n-modeling theorems and give applications of these theorems. In particular, we verify a step in the argument that TP is equivalent to TP1_1 or TP2_2 that has not seen explication in the literature. In the Appendix, we exposit the proofs of \citep[{App. 2.6, 2.7}]{sh90}, expanding on the details.Comment: submitte

    Modeling Camera Effects to Improve Visual Learning from Synthetic Data

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    Recent work has focused on generating synthetic imagery to increase the size and variability of training data for learning visual tasks in urban scenes. This includes increasing the occurrence of occlusions or varying environmental and weather effects. However, few have addressed modeling variation in the sensor domain. Sensor effects can degrade real images, limiting generalizability of network performance on visual tasks trained on synthetic data and tested in real environments. This paper proposes an efficient, automatic, physically-based augmentation pipeline to vary sensor effects --chromatic aberration, blur, exposure, noise, and color cast-- for synthetic imagery. In particular, this paper illustrates that augmenting synthetic training datasets with the proposed pipeline reduces the domain gap between synthetic and real domains for the task of object detection in urban driving scenes

    A Stable Biologically Motivated Learning Mechanism for Visual Feature Extraction to Handle Facial Categorization

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    The brain mechanism of extracting visual features for recognizing various objects has consistently been a controversial issue in computational models of object recognition. To extract visual features, we introduce a new, biologically motivated model for facial categorization, which is an extension of the Hubel and Wiesel simple-to-complex cell hierarchy. To address the synaptic stability versus plasticity dilemma, we apply the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) for extracting informative intermediate level visual features during the learning process, which also makes this model stable against the destruction of previously learned information while learning new information. Such a mechanism has been suggested to be embedded within known laminar microcircuits of the cerebral cortex. To reveal the strength of the proposed visual feature learning mechanism, we show that when we use this mechanism in the training process of a well-known biologically motivated object recognition model (the HMAX model), it performs better than the HMAX model in face/non-face classification tasks. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our proposed mechanism is capable of following similar trends in performance as humans in a psychophysical experiment using a face versus non-face rapid categorization task

    Experimental analysis of sample-based maps for long-term SLAM

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    This paper presents a system for long-term SLAM (simultaneous localization and mapping) by mobile service robots and its experimental evaluation in a real dynamic environment. To deal with the stability-plasticity dilemma (the trade-off between adaptation to new patterns and preservation of old patterns), the environment is represented at multiple timescales simultaneously (5 in our experiments). A sample-based representation is proposed, where older memories fade at different rates depending on the timescale, and robust statistics are used to interpret the samples. The dynamics of this representation are analysed in a five week experiment, measuring the relative influence of short- and long-term memories over time, and further demonstrating the robustness of the approach
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