132 research outputs found

    Convexity-Increasing Morphs of Planar Graphs

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    We study the problem of convexifying drawings of planar graphs. Given any planar straight-line drawing of an internally 3-connected graph, we show how to morph the drawing to one with strictly convex faces while maintaining planarity at all times. Our morph is convexity-increasing, meaning that once an angle is convex, it remains convex. We give an efficient algorithm that constructs such a morph as a composition of a linear number of steps where each step either moves vertices along horizontal lines or moves vertices along vertical lines. Moreover, we show that a linear number of steps is worst-case optimal. To obtain our result, we use a well-known technique by Hong and Nagamochi for finding redrawings with convex faces while preserving y-coordinates. Using a variant of Tutte's graph drawing algorithm, we obtain a new proof of Hong and Nagamochi's result which comes with a better running time. This is of independent interest, as Hong and Nagamochi's technique serves as a building block in existing morphing algorithms.Comment: Preliminary version in Proc. WG 201

    Keep an eye on your hands: on the role of visual mechanisms in processing of haptic space

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    The present paper reviews research on a haptic orientation processing. Central is a task in which a test bar has to be set parallel to a reference bar at another location. Introducing a delay between inspecting the reference bar and setting the test bar leads to a surprising improvement. Moreover, offering visual background information also elevates performance. Interestingly, (congenitally) blind individuals do not or to a weaker extent show the improvement with time, while in parallel to this, they appear to benefit less from spatial imagery processing. Together this strongly points to an important role for visual processing mechanisms in the perception of haptic inputs

    The haptic perception of spatial orientations

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    This review examines the isotropy of the perception of spatial orientations in the haptic system. It shows the existence of an oblique effect (i.e., a better perception of vertical and horizontal orientations than oblique orientations) in a spatial plane intrinsic to the haptic system, determined by the gravitational cues and the cognitive resources and defined in a subjective frame of reference. Similar results are observed from infancy to adulthood. In 3D space, the haptic processing of orientations is also anisotropic and seems to use both egocentric and allocentric cues. Taken together, these results revealed that the haptic oblique effect occurs when the sensory motor traces associated with exploratory movement are represented more abstractly at a cognitive level

    A Computational Model of Visual Anisotropy

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    Visual anisotropy has been demonstrated in multiple tasks where performance differs between vertical, horizontal, and oblique orientations of the stimuli. We explain some principles of visual anisotropy by anisotropic smoothing, which is based on a variation on Koenderink's approach in [1]. We tested the theory by presenting Gaussian elongated luminance profiles and measuring the perceived orientations by means of an adjustment task. Our framework is based on the smoothing of the image with elliptical Gaussian kernels and it correctly predicted an illusory orientation bias towards the vertical axis. We discuss the scope of the theory in the context of other anisotropies in perception

    The Influence of Perceptual Training on Working Memory in Older Adults

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    Normal aging is associated with a degradation of perceptual abilities and a decline in higher-level cognitive functions, notably working memory. To remediate age-related deficits, cognitive training programs are increasingly being developed. However, it is not yet definitively established if, and by what mechanisms, training ameliorates effects of cognitive aging. Furthermore, a major factor impeding the success of training programs is a frequent failure of training to transfer benefits to untrained abilities. Here, we offer the first evidence of direct transfer-of-benefits from perceptual discrimination training to working memory performance in older adults. Moreover, using electroencephalography to evaluate participants before and after training, we reveal neural evidence of functional plasticity in older adult brains, such that training-induced modifications in early visual processing during stimulus encoding predict working memory accuracy improvements. These findings demonstrate the strength of the perceptual discrimination training approach by offering clear psychophysical evidence of transfer-of-benefit and a neural mechanism underlying cognitive improvement

    Visual Performance Fields: Frames of Reference

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    Performance in most visual discrimination tasks is better along the horizontal than the vertical meridian (Horizontal-Vertical Anisotropy, HVA), and along the lower than the upper vertical meridian (Vertical Meridian Asymmetry, VMA), with intermediate performance at intercardinal locations. As these inhomogeneities are prevalent throughout visual tasks, it is important to understand the perceptual consequences of dissociating spatial reference frames. In all studies of performance fields so far, allocentric environmental references and egocentric observer reference frames were aligned. Here we quantified the effects of manipulating head-centric and retinotopic coordinates on the shape of visual performance fields. When observers viewed briefly presented radial arrays of Gabors and discriminated the tilt of a target relative to homogeneously oriented distractors, performance fields shifted with head tilt (Experiment 1), and fixation (Experiment 2). These results show that performance fields shift in-line with egocentric referents, corresponding to the retinal location of the stimulus

    Oblique Orientation Discrimination Thresholds Are Superior in Those with a High Level of Autistic Traits

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    Enhanced low-level perception, although present in individuals with autism, is not seen in individuals with high, but non-clinical, levels of autistic traits (Brock et al.in Percept Lond 40(6):739. doi:10.​1068/​p6953, 2011). This is surprising, as many of the higher-level visual differences found in autism have been shown to correlate with autistic traits in non-clinical samples. Here we measure vertical–oblique and, more difficult, oblique–oblique orientation discrimination thresholds in a non-clinical sample. As predicted, oblique–oblique thresholds provided a more sensitive test of orientation discrimination, and were negatively related to autistic traits (N = 94, r = −.356, p < .0001). We conclude that individual differences in orientation discrimination and autistic traits are related, and suggest that both of these factors could be mediated by increased levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA