38,436 research outputs found

    Interleukin-6, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome in a biracial cohort: the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke cohort

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    Objective: Black Americans have a greater risk of type-2 diabetes than White Americans. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in diabetes pathogenesis and is higher in Black people. This study investigated associations of IL-6 with incident diabetes and metabolic syndrome in a biracial cohort.Research Design and Methods: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study enrolled 30,239 Black and White adults age 45+ in 2003-07, with a follow-up ~9.5 years later. Baseline plasma IL-6 was measured in 3,399 at risk for incident diabetes and 1,871 for metabolic syndrome. Modified Poisson regression estimated relative risk (RR) by IL-6 for both.Results: Incident diabetes occurred in 14% and metabolic syndrome in 20%; both rose across IL-6 quartiles. There was a 3-way interaction of IL-6, race, and central adiposity for incident diabetes (p=8 x10-5). In Black participants with and without central adiposity RRs were 2.02 (95% CI 1.00-4.07) and 1.66 (1.00-2.75) for the 4th compared to 1st quartile of IL-6, respectively. The corresponding RRs were 1.73 (0.92-3.26) and 2.34 (1.17-4.66) in White participants. The pattern was similar for IL-6 and metabolic syndrome.Conclusions: While IL-6 was higher in Black than White participants and those with central adiposity, associations of IL-6 with diabetes risk was only statistically significant among White participants without central adiposity. Associations with metabolic syndrome risk were similarly stronger in low-risk groups. Results support the concept of interventions to lower inflammation in diabetes prevention, but to reduce race disparities, better biomarkers are needed.</p

    Food System Impacts of Covid-19: Research Brief 5 - The Dairy Sector

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    This is the final version. Available from the Centre for Rural Policy Research, University of Exeter via the link in this recordEconomic and Social Research Council (ESRC

    Food System Impacts of Covid-19: Research Brief 4 - The Meat Sector

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    This is the final version. Available from the Centre for Rural Policy Research, University of Exeter via the link in this recordEconomic and Social Research Council (ESRC

    Co-opting the "neuro" in neurodiversity and the complexities of epistemic injustice

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Elsevier via the DOI in this recordThis article tackles the theoretical thinking behind PPI and inclusion, input from people with neurodiverse conditions. By providing a perspective on how the prefix "Neuro" is positioned in a neutral and authoritative way (exemplified through our brief review of articles within Cortex), we explore how "epistemic injustice" (a concept used frequently in law, politics, philosophy and social science) can potentially arise. Epistemic injustice typically refers to a pernicious power dynamic whereby oppressed groups are silenced (Fricker 2007), either because certain voices are not given weight ("testimonial injustice"), or the ways in which they are allowed to speak (e.g., interpret their own experiences) are limited ("hermeneutical injustice") (Kidd and Carel 2016). We show how, for "neurodiversity", the mainstream "neuro" narratives are often positively felt by those deemed to be neurodiverse, and the lines between oppressor and oppressed break down, as both neuroscientists and people with neurodiverse conditions co-opt and influence each other's positions

    Cognition in vestibular disorders: state of the field, challenges, and priorities for the future

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    Vestibular disorders are prevalent and debilitating conditions of the inner ear and brain which affect balance, coordination, and the integration of multisensory inputs. A growing body of research has linked vestibular disorders to cognitive problems, most notably attention, visuospatial perception, spatial memory, and executive function. However, the mechanistic bases of these cognitive sequelae remain poorly defined, and there is a gap between our theoretical understanding of vestibular cognitive dysfunction, and how best to identify and manage this within clinical practice. This article takes stock of these shortcomings and provides recommendations and priorities for healthcare professionals who assess and treat vestibular disorders, and for researchers developing cognitive models and rehabilitation interventions. We highlight the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration for developing and evaluating clinically relevant theoretical models of vestibular cognition, to advance research and treatment
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